. The UVS review on the GR concepts of gravity "The predictions of general relativity differ significantly from those of classical physics, especially concerning the passage of time, the geometry of space, the motion of bodies in free fall, and the propagation of light. Examples of such differences include gravitational time dilation, the gravitational redshift of light, and the gravitational time delay." - Excerpt from Wikipedia on General relativity. The UVS treatise posits that space and time are invariants, and an almost all-pervasive inviscid aetheric medium in vortical motion exists in the universe; this is a paradigm shift from the modern physics that posits space and time are variants with no physical existence of aether.
See the UVS topics on "The UVS reviews on the time dilation effects in Einstein's special theory of relativity" for further elaboration, "Michelson-Morley experiment reviewed with UVS", and an externally linked topic on "The Dayton Miller's ether-drift experiments" for further elaboration. But
seemingly, Einstein knew if the existence of aether is proven, the theory
of relativity in its current form that posits variant space and time,
would be invalid.
“No
amount of experimentation can ever prove me right;
See the UVS topics on "The cognitive paradox fallacy in Michelson-Morley experiment" for further elaboration, and "Qualitative evaluation on time dilation" that elaborates on a crucial foundational crisis and its artificial cognitive paradoxes in modern physics. The original Lorentz transformation is based on the aether model of its Lorentz ether theory, the original Maxwell equations are based on aether model, the original Doppler effect requires a medium for propagation of light or gravity, and the original Einstein's universe with the postulated cosmological constant, is essentially also an aether model of spacetime vortex. These are sufficient grounds for reasserting the existence of an all-pervasive aetheric field with vortically resonated aether corpuscles, and consequently, time and space are invariants, and gravity is a vortical repulsion effect of its hyperspheric encapsulation. In the UVS worldview, in a manifested nested spheroidal unisonal vortex of a hyperspheric vortical universe, matters are coalesced by the vortical spin fusion of aether vortical motion, and this renders the mass effect of matter with repulsive force. From the UVS perspective, matters are manifested by vortical consolidations of aether corpuscles in an almost all-pervasive aetheric field with the resonance of vortical excitation, and matters thus are imbued to have the properties of the almost all-pervasive aether with transferred vortical motion. See the UVS topics on "The hyperspheric pushed-in gravity" that elaborates on the causality of gravity, and "The structure of atom" for further elaboration.
The philosophy of science advocated by Albert Einstein, proposed empiricism blends with scientific realism for a holism of the universe. Einstein had pursued relentlessly throughout his life for attempting to find and develop a unifying theory based on a single model to explain all fundamental interactions of nature, and this theory was supposed to fully explain and link together all known natural phenomena in the physical world. See externally linked topics on "Einstein's Philosophy of Science", and "Theory of everything" for references.
See the UVS topics on "Cyclonic gravity field effect" that illustrates rotational frame-dragging is a vortical motion caused by the geometric gravity of a revolving and rotating celestial spheroid, and "The unisonal vortex mechanism" for further elaboration from the UVS perspective.
Analytically, in the general relativity point of view, gravity as a result of spacetime (aether) distortion that causes Earth to fall perpetually into the spacetime distortion of the Sun. A satellite captured by Earth's gravity (with its spacetime distortion) to revolve around the Earth, is in essence falling perpetually into the spacetime distortion of a perpetually moving away Earth; the invariable plane where the Earth apparently sits on is in fact not at rest. In this hypothetical construct of the spacetime distortion model, in equilibrium vortical motion, the perpetual falling Earth keeps its spiraling satellites from not falling down to Earth. Evidently, the young Einstein was already familiar with the vortex theory of Hermann von Helmholtz, who was a renowned physicist and had contributed to the knowledge of thermodynamics, electrodynamics, the studies for vortex motion in fluids, and he was also known for conservation of energy. In August 1899, Einstein mentioned: "I admire ever more the original, free thinker Helmholtz". See an externally linked topic on "Vortex dynamics" that elaborates on the vortex theory of Hermann von Helmholtz. At the age of fifteen Einstein wrote his first scientific work, "The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields", and he had incorporated the concept of aether (spacetime continuum is ether-like) discreetly into his later research in "Einstein æther theory" with a scalar field, and accounted for the cause of geometric gravity with a positive cosmological constant (ratio of dark matter and dark energy). At then, the aether hypothesis of Christiaan Huygens and the "Carteisan Cosmology" founded with "Theory of Vortices" by Rene Descartes had been rejected on the basis that empty space is void of aether by Isaac Newton with Newton's Principia, this was further substantiated with the famous Michelson-Morley experiment (1887) that there was no aether wind, and at then this conclusion could not be rejected. Presumably, Einstein therefore could not officially propose the existence of aether with such hardcore rejections by his peers. See the UVS topic on "Michelson-Morley experiment reviewed with UVS" for further elaboration. "Michelson and Morley in 1887 designed an experiment, which employed an interferometer and a half-silvered mirror, that was accurate enough to detect aether flow. The mirror system reflected the light back into the interferometer. If there were an aether drift, it would produce a phase shift and a change in the interference that would be detected. However, given the results were negative, rather than validating the aether, based upon the findings aether was not confirmed. This was a major step in science that eventually resulted in Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity." - Excerpt from Wikipedia on Lorentz transformation. Many who had openly held the proposition that aether exists, or any concept implying a universal medium that pervades the observable universe, were either discredited, pushed aside, and simply left high and dry by depriving them from institutional resources. Iconic proponents of aether theories who had received such treatments include Rene Descartes, Nikola Tesla, Walter Russell, Hannes Alfven and many others. See externally linked topics on "Mechanical explanations of gravitation", "Challenging dominant physics paradigms", "Rene Descartes' Theory of Vortices", "Tesla's Dynamic Theory of Gravity", "Space and the Hydrogen Age" by Walter Russell, and "Plasma cosmology" of Hannes Alfvén. Newton rejected the aether hypothesis of Christiaan Huygens and the Descartes' aether "vortex theory" of planetary motion, but even the later published Newton's aether model was deliberated as flawed, and was therefore rejected. The original Maxwell equations were derived from a mechanical model of aether, and the original idea for Lorentz transformation was also based on aether that describes it like a Doppler effect. However, under peer pressure, these theologians one way or the other, were tactically made to abandon the concept of an aether-filled space, and subsequently their a posteriori propositions were reformed to the mathematical constructs that do not require aether with the officially endorsed posits for invariant time and space. Einstein's universe proposed in 1917, is a closed-system of dark matter and dark energy described with a positive cosmological constant, and it is a static universe model for which space is neither expanding nor contracting and contains uniform dust. This was officially refuted after Hubble's discovery on receding galaxies in 1922 that suggests the observable universe was expanding, and it was empirically observed to be much bigger than what Einstein had proposed with his mistake of the distant galaxies are stars of the Milky Way Galaxy. Consequently, Einstein's cosmological constant, along with his static universe hypothesis, his postulation of physical aether, his posits of invariant space and invariant time, as well as the fallacious belief that Milky Way's galactic center is the center of the universe and the postulated size of the Einstein universe, were eventually rejected. The scientific consensus at then was for the Big Bang theory that postulated metric expansion of space with the current form of relativistic theory, which posits variant space and variant time without an all-pervasive physical aether. Note: It was Heber Curtis who proposed that the so called spiral nebulae, which were measured to have massive doppler shifts, are actually independent galaxies. This proposition redefined the size of the universe, and called for the "Shapley–Curtis Debate". See the UVS topic on "Four-dimensional spacetime continuum in a hypothetical construct for sound wave in a vector space void of medium". See also externally linked topics on "Einstein–Hilbert action" in a significant event for physics in November 1915 that had led to the current definition for spacetime of the mathematicians' relativism, and an address delivered on May 5th, 1920, in the University of Leyden by Albert Einstein on "Ether and the Theory of Relativity" that was rejected by his peers. Seemingly, Einstein had held on to his postulation of aether, and this was never let up unlike it was generally believed that he had abandoned the hypothesis of an aether-filled universe with the posits of invariant space and time. Between a rock and a hard place with the consensus on non-existence of aether could not be rejected at then, Einstein could therefore had morphed aether as spacetime continuum, in an interchanged manner the invariant space or invariant time was swapped with invariant aether, and the variant aether was swapped with a variant spacetime continuum. In this ingenious manner, Einstein can avoid the relentless onslaughts from his peers, and thus can capitulate to the scientific consensus that was dogmatically against any theory that postulated aether exists. In the transition from classical physics era, if Einstein did not morph aether as spacetime, his theory of relativity would be completely rejected as well, which would impede him on bringing to humanity its a posteriori know-how applications. See an externally linked topic on "Albert Einstein, Alt-Ac Pioneer" that articulated on the alternative path Einstein had took for the inception of his scientific revolution. “There is no space empty of field.” - Albert Einstein “The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources.” - Albert Einstein “It takes a touch of genius -- and a lot of courage -- to move in the opposite direction.” - Cited by Albert Einstein In the address delivered on May 5th, 1920, in the University of Leyden, Einstein categorically mentioned "Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether. According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time". He also categorically mentioned space is his measuring rod (invariant) and time is his measuring clock (invariant). In GR where aether was supposedly swapped with invariant space or invariant time, an ambiguity in circular logic would occur in linguistic manner and when aether was treated as an invariant scalar field therefore Einstein further mentioned "this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it.". See a video clip on "Einstein Relativity theory declares aether necessary!" for the declaration of aether made by Einstein on May 5th, 1920. “... space without ether is unthinkable;” - Albert Einstein, on May 5th, 1920.. “Time and space are modes in which we think and not conditions in which we live.” - Albert Einstein Moreover, it was not like a third party trying to interpret what it meant by the term “spacetime” that was originally coined by Einstein. It was none other than the author of "Theory of relativity" who had published these papers since 1905 through 1915, which had thus began the era of modern physics, and Einstein by himself, not through another party, after 1919 with the world famous initial successful test of general relativity, was trying to tell the world in 1920 with his definitions to clarify what he meant by spacetime. “A man should look for what is, and not for what he thinks should be.” - Albert Einstein From the UVS perspective, the mainstream theory of relativity was misled in all sorts of delusion in the manifold of artificial cognitive paradoxes, and hence suffered foundational crisis, it therefore could not be cut out in a single model from quantum levels to cosmic levels. Hitherto, the questions remain unanswered in modern physics on how general relativity could be reconciled with the laws of quantum physics to produce a complete and self-consistent theory for gravity that unifies with quantum mechanics. See the UVS topic on "Qualitative evaluation on time dilation" that illustrate some of the delusions. “Quantum mechanics is an incomplete theory.” - Einstein's proposition See externally linked topics on "Relativity and quantum mechanics" that summarizes the incompatibility of general relativity and quantum mechanics, and "EPR paradox" where it mentioned Einstein never accepted quantum mechanics as a "real" and complete theory for its "spooky action at a distance", struggling to the end of his life for an interpretation that could comply with relativity without complying with the paradoxical Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. See the UVS topics on "The hyperspheric pushed-in gravity" that elaborates on the causality of gravity, and "Electron cloud" that elaborates on how quantum entanglement can be rationally explained by the interconnectedness with an underlying atomic vortex. Any relativist who believes that space and time are variants, therefore the phenomena of transformations in relative motion of uniform velocity are physically real in symmetrical situation, symmetrical length contraction in special relativity (SR) is physical, gravitational field physically distorts space and time, active transformations of time for time dilation effect in SR and gravitation time dilation in GR are scientifically proven, and one-way travel into the future in forward time travel is physically possible, he just needs to investigate the explanation by Einstein on time dilation effect in SR for clarification. “Since
the mathematicians have invaded the theory of relativity, "In special relativity, the time dilation effect is reciprocal: as observed from the point of view of any two clocks which are in motion with respect to each other, it will be the other party's clock that is time dilated. ", "In the special theory of relativity, a moving clock is found to be ticking slowly with respect to the observer's clock. If Sam and Abigail are on different trains in near-lightspeed relative motion, Sam measures (by all methods of measurement) clocks on Abigail's train to be running slowly and, similarly, Abigail measures clocks on Sam's train to be running slowly.", "Symmetric time dilation occurs with respect to temporal coordinate systems set up in this manner. It is an effect where another clock is being viewed as running slowly by an observer. Observers do not consider their own clock time to be time-dilated, but may find that it is observed to be time-dilated in another coordinate system.". Excerpts from Wikipedia on "Time dilation" and in a section at "Time dilation is symmetric between two inertial observers". It is absolutely clear that time dilation effect in SR is merely an optical illusion of relative motion with uniform velocity in its symmetrical situation, and based on light propagation has limited speed with the posit of invariant space and time (one temporal dimension of time and three-dimensional Euclidean space), in an aether-filled universe, the other propositions of Einstein's theory of relativity that are related to time dilation, can be coherently clarified without any contradiction and are free of paradoxes. These understandings can reveal the relativism of modern physics that posits variant space and variant time, is a cargo cult science.
See externally linked topics on “Quantum vortices of Bose-Einstein condensate”, "Stop light experiment", and "'Tornadoes' Are Transferred From Light To Sodium Atoms" that demonstrates in an experiment on light (Electromagnetic radiation) interacting with matter, it elaborates on a new quantum physics technique and this can be used to manipulate Bose-Einstein condensates by transferred orbital angular momentum. This is essentially the same motion as air molecules in a tornado or a planet revolving around a star--from laser light to sodium atoms.
From the UVS perspective, spacetime continuum in GR is aether-like, and they are equivalent in principle in their paradigms of space and time. GR postulates that spacetime distortion is caused by gravitation effect of a celestial mass, and in mainstream relativism it was postulated that time is slower in a stronger gravitational field as a result of gravitational time dilation. Although the quantitative predictions for gravitational time dilation have had been experimentally proven to be precise and consistent, such as with atomic clock experiments and Shapiro delay experiments, qualitatively, they are stemmed from its artificial cognitive paradox rendered by its fallacious posit of variant time. In the UVS worldview, gravity is caused by aether vortical motion with its reactive effects to vortically repel matters within the encapsulation of a nested spheroidal unisonal vortex of the universe. In the harmonics of aether vortical motion for nested formation of spheroidal unisonal vortex from macrocosms to microcosms, the causality of the fundamental interactions, are entirely compatible. See the UVS topics on "Unisonal evolution mechanism", "The hyperspheric vortical universe model of UVS", and "The CMB dipole" for further elaboration.
“The mass effect of matter is caused by aether vortical
motion
The equivalence principle "The equivalence principle is one of the fundamental background concepts of the General Theory of Relativity.", "The equivalence principle proper was introduced by Albert Einstein in 1907, when he observed that the acceleration of bodies towards the center of the Earth at a rate of 1g (g = 9.81 m/s² being a standard reference of gravitational acceleration at the Earth's surface) is equivalent to the acceleration of an inertially moving body that would be observed on a rocket in free space being accelerated at a rate of 1g.". Excerpt from Wikipedia on equivalence principle. From the UVS perspective, in almost isotropy with negative pressure in a vortically manifested spheroidal confinement of aether, the effect of gravity pushed-in matters toward the center of the Earth at the Earth's surface with an inertial acceleration at a rate of g (~9.81 m/s²). The transferred force from the accelerated rocket would push the body in a consolidating manner to transfer the force sequentially from one atom to the other in the body to render the sensation of mass. This is equivalent to the mechanical acceleration of an inertially moving body that could be observed on a rocket in free space being accelerated at a rate of g, the transferred force from the accelerated rocket would also push the body in a consolidating manner to transfer the force sequentially from one atom to the other in the body to render the sensation of mass. Fundamentally, the equivalence principle of the General Theory of Relativity on inertial acceleration of gravity correlates with UVS for gravity on it is a pushed-in effect of transferred force; transferred force that pushes on a body in inertial acceleration is physically equivalent to transferred force that pushes on a body in mechanical acceleration. Despite repeated experiments since the seventeenth century have demonstrated that inertial mass and gravitational mass are equivalent, qualitatively, the postulated pulled-in effect of gravity that renders the sensation of mass on a body, is an artificial cognitive paradox rendered by the posit of variant space.
Gravitational lensing
From the UVS perspective, it suggests that light is refracted with varying refractive index in a curved path in the viscous matter medium of an invisible nested spheroidal unisonal vortex of a celestial object. The density gradient in the medium, is consolidated by the vortical effects of its spheroidal pushed-in gravitational field; this causes the gravitational lensing effect. This is the fundamental reason that light would bend in a curved path when it enters an invisible medium that has density gradient caused by gravitational compression; light bends in a curved path through optical refraction in the medium with density gradient. This suggests that the theory for gravitational lensing effect is based on a misconception caused by its artificial cognitive paradox that renders its physical paradox. See a video presentation on "Solar Gravitation and Solar Plasma Wave Propagation on Interaction" by Dr. Ed Dowdye, and an externally linked subtopic on "Luminiferous aether".
“There is no space empty of field.” - Albert Einstein From the UVS perspective, this empirically observed scientific evidence for the physical transformation of spacetime in a higher gravitational potential, is an immutable qualitative proof that aether exist with the posits of invariant time and space. See the UVS topics on "The UVS perspective on dark matter and dark energy", and "Scientific evidence and proofs for aether does physically exist" that elaborate on the existence of aether.
According to general relativity, there is a space-time singularity at the center of a spherical black hole, which means an infinite space-time curvature. It means that, from the viewpoint of an observer falling into a black hole, in a finite time (at the end of his fall) a black hole's mass becomes entirely compressed into a region with zero volume, so its density becomes infinite. This zero-volume, infinitely dense region at the center of a black hole is called a gravitational singularity. Excerpt from Wikipedia on gravitational singularity.
From the UVS perspective, in an obfuscated topsy-turvy manner, gravitational singularity emerges vortically from a single point of zero volume in an inviscid universal medium, is the barycenter of momentum culmination in a resonant of aether vortical motion. See the UVS topic on "The vortical phenomena of the Cartwheel galaxy group" that illustrates how an outer ring of vortical star clusters had vortically emerged from an apparent nothingness.
“It takes a touch of genius -- and a lot of courage -- to move in the opposite direction.” - Cited by Albert Einstein “The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources.” - Albert Einstein “There is no space empty of field.” - Albert Einstein “Time and space are modes in which we think and not conditions in which we live.” - Albert Einstein “... space without ether is unthinkable;” - Albert Einstein, on May 5th, 1920. “Since
the mathematicians have invaded the theory of relativity, “Two
things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity;
See an externally linked topic on "Galaxy Cluster Spawns Stars Faster Than Any In Known Universe", this scientific observation is a strong evidence for the existence of an intergalactic spheroidal vortex system that spawns stars, and then systematically coalesced them in a cluster of galaxies. The law of for the special theory of relativity states that nothing can be accelerated faster than the speed of light, otherwise the energy required would become infinity and this is physically impossible. The energy equation that predicts this is expressed as E =γmc², where the Lorentz factor γ = √(1 - v² /c² )¯¹ , m is the mass, v is the relative velocity and c is the speed of light. So if velocity reaches the speed of light, the Lorentz factor becomes infinity, which implies infinite energy with the equation. However, the reality of Cartwheel galaxy as empirically observed, and as well as the Phoenix galaxy cluster, demonstrate that their underlying mechanisms have had defied the universal law of special relativity and its causality principle. “If
the equation for a universal law of physics cannot explain a reality See the UVS topics on "Qualitative evaluation on time dilation", "Types of perpetual motion machine" for the illustrations of perpetual motion manifested in nature, "The formation of stars and galaxies", and "Galaxy group" that elaborates on this apparent nothingness that encapsulates the Cartwheel galaxy. In the UVS worldview, an invisible galactic vortex is the spinner of the galaxy, in its larger vortical system its propagates viscous matters to interact by exchanging angular momentum in its vortical structures of material nothingness at such a high speed that the speed of light is like crawling at super slow motion in comparison to the superluminal speed of this inertia force. From the UVS perspective, the so-called dark matter is a great source of blazing light radiating at frequencies beyond our optical bandwidth that therefore negates all our means to directly detect it. It is powerfully vibrating at resonant frequencies and in an apparent nothingness it vortically coalesces and drives the stars in unison in a unisonal vortical system, on a higher level of the vortical system it vortically consolidates these stars in clusters in the interconnectedness as a galaxy through torque-free precession in a galactic oneness. “In
balanced synergetics that vortically create matter from an entity
of apparent nothingness, everything physical in the universe universally evolves in a paradigm of vortical singularity.” - UVS inspired - See the UVS topics on "Types of perpetual motion machine" for the illustrations of perpetual motion in nature, "Aether vortical motion", "The formation of stars and galaxies", "Galaxy group" that elaborates on this apparent nothingness that encapsulates the Cartwheel galaxy, and "The CMB dipole" for further elaboration.
In the interconnectedness of physical objects, momentum can be transferred at almost instantaneously speed that could be superluminal. Imagine a Newton's cradle that is one light year long, momentum from a steel ball can be transferred from end to end instantaneously but it would take one year for the image of the moving steel ball at the other end to reach the first end. This transferring of motion is faster than the speed of light through interconnection of discrete objects. Distant galaxies were observed to be receding from Earth at faster velocity proportion to their distance from Earth, the distant galaxies at the far edge are measured to be receding at faster than light speed in the acceleration. Logically, assuming the measurements of receding velocities of distant galaxies based on the observation are correct, then the distant galaxies at opposite ends of Earth would be receding between each other at more than twice the speed of light; this is a scientific evidence with quantitative measurements that matter with mass can travel faster than the speed of light in a relative manner. In the UVS worldview, unisonal vortex is initiated by torque-free precession and forms in an outward-in imploding process. With its comparative analysis of vortical dynamics that is similar for atmospheric polar vortex as well as a galactic vortex are emerged in an almost instantaneous consolidating manner through unisonal motion, it suggests the largest hypersphere of the observable would similarly have emerged almost instantaneously in an interconnected oneness in its universal viscous matter. If the conjecture that the external ring with a span of 150,000 light-years across Cartwheel galaxy had evolved almost instantaneous, then the hypothetical age of the universe is about 13.8 billion years is also a myth. The furthest distant galaxies such as galaxy Abell 1835 IR1916 did not take 13.2 billion years to reach there in its cosmic inflation, primordially they were vortically weaved in an almost spontaneous manner in the largest hypersphere that was dilating. See an externally linked topic on "Have we been wrong about the age of our universe all along?" that questioned the age of the universe with a perceived paradox. See the UVS topics on "The cognitive paradox fallacy in Big Bang model on metric expansion of space", and "The CMB dipole" for further elaborations.
~ With special thanks to Professor Christopher W. Hodshire for his private message on highlighting the link to "Albert Einstein, Alt-Ac Pioneer" that articulated on the alternative path Einstein had took for the inception of his scientific revolution. ~ With special thanks to Professor Christopher W. Hodshire from Western Michigan University for his email on highlighting a link on "Galaxy Cluster Spawns Stars Faster Than Any In Known Universe". In the UVS worldview, this is strong scientific evidence for the existence of an intergalactic spheroidal vortex system that vortically spawn stars, and then these stars vortically coalesced as a cluster of galaxies. ~ With special thanks to anonymous for his private message with links to "Solar Gravitation and Solar Plasma Wave Propagation on Interaction".
March 2008 References
and links:
counter was reset on 18/02/2010
Disclaimers: The treatise of Universal Vortical Singularity (UVS) in its epistemological paradigm shift, is fundamentally unconventional. Its hypotheses grounded on a generally unheard-of UVS model, bound to have shortcomings, such as loose ends, errors, and omissions errors. Many details and assumptions in its propositions have yet to be further researched, probed, evaluated, validated, or verified. Its implicit explanations are for casual understanding of the UVS topics presented in the UVS worldview, so if any term or statement is offensive in any manner from whatsoever perspectives, is most regretted. Links to other sites do not imply endorsement of their contents; apply appropriate discretion whenever necessary. Also, the content of the UVS topics, from time to time could be arbitrarily modified without any notice. Viewing tips: Despite the presentations of the UVS web pages has went through much accommodation for their viewings on smart phones, they are still not entirely friendly to these mobile devices. For the best experiences, use a MS Windows based PC or computer system with Java enabled browser for running its interactive applets. (Such as Java Applet of Moiré pattern, JPL Small-Body Database Browser, and Planet Finder.) Copyright information: This UVS web site is for non-profit purposes and not for commercial use. Wherever possible, direct credits to the origins of the works or images were provided, be it on fair dealings, with explicit permission from their owners, or the materials were believed to be from the public domain. |