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Universal Vortical Singularity – Appendix B
June 2002

How does a free vortex have a funnel-like shape

The purpose of this section is to explain the physical forces that act on a free vortex, the reasons to how it has a funnel-like shape and describes the fundamental forces that are shaping it.

In this case, whirlpool, a free vortex, is used for illustration.

When there is a downward drag under the water surface, for example water is drained through a hole at the bottom of a sink, the drag will cause a depression at the immediate surface. As a result of surface tension and vertical pressure gradient or density gradient, that depression has a curved cone shape, this is a blind free vortex. This shape has the minimum surface area a depressed structure can form. The size of the depression depends directly on the strength of the drag. The most efficient pattern for conservation of momentum in viscous matter is horizontal circular shape; this is the manner a force is absorbed. The vertical pressure gradient in the medium of viscous matter causes the ideally cone shape circular depressed surface to curve inward vertically.

When a blind vortex is formed, the drag at the bottom will result in a horizontal driving force at the vortex surface towards the center, with gravity also acting on the water mass in the blind vortex, a vortical core-seeking force would then be in effect that would cause movement of the water mass in a circular center seeking path inside the cone-shaped depressed structure.

Gravity acts on the gradient of the blind vortex on the surface and causes water mass on a higher plane to move towards the lower center. With the horizontal force, the resultant is movement of water mass in circular path in a center seeking manner. The way the horizontal driving force is applied decides the direction of spin. This spinning motion is visible on the surface of a blind vortex. The water mass below the blind vortex will also spin on a vertical axis at a lower speed as a result of water cohesion.

If the experiment is conducted in a careful manner such that there is no atrificial horizontal force introduced to the collection of water mass, the cyclonic gravity field effect acting on it would cause the developed whirlpool to rotate cyclonically. (under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. In a large, circular, symmetrical container (ideally over 1m in diameter and conical), still water (whose motion is so little that over the course of a day, displacements are small compared to the size of the container) escaping through a very small hole, will drain in a cyclonic fashion. - Excerp from Coriolis effect by Wikipedia)

This spinning water mass has centrifugal force that would cause water pressure to reduce at the center, this could be described mathematically with a function of centrifugal force and Bernoulli's principle. When the cohesion of water molecules in the viscous matter are overcome by centrifugal force in the blind vortex, it would begin to open up at its center of equilibrium, and form what is known as the vortex eye. The size of the vortex eye depends on the strength of the centrifugal force acting on the vortex. The rounded shape vortex eye is as a result of surface tension. A vortex eye initiates at the surface where water pressure is the lowest, in a vortical chain reaction it will then open towards the bottom where water pressure is highest, this action forms a vortex column. At this stage this is a free vortex with a vortex eye and has a fully developed vortex column. Along the vortex column, with a horizontal centrifugal force in the axis that interacts with gravity, water mass spirals outward in a vortical movement.

When a short vortex column is initially formed, more water mass would be drained from the surface into the vortex eye; this is as a result of gravity at this stage is acting on more water mass with a bigger free vortex with higher height and stronger force (F=ma). This action increases vortex intensity and speed up the spinning motion of the free vortex. When the vortex is spinning faster, the centrifugal force is stronger and therefore the free vortex would be enlarged further with a larger vortex eye and a longer vortex column. The enlarged free vortex will cause even more water mass to flow into the vortex column that further intensifies the free vortex. The manner a free vortex continues to feedback strength is the chain reaction that forms the vortex column until the formation of the free vortex is peaked.

The vortically spinning water would form a vortical water wall as a vortex column, inside the vortex column it is void of water, and is therefore displaced by air that was compressed from above. The air in the vortex column interacts with the vortical column of water and therefore would also be dragged to spin, this can be experimentally demonstrated by placing a miniature windmill in the vortex column near the vortex wall, face it perpendicular to the vortex wall would be able to observe the vortically dragged wind driving the windmill.

As a result of vertical pressure gradient in viscous matter, the couteracting centripetal force as a function of water pressure is higher at lower level in water mass following an inverse-sqaure law, the size of the vortex eye in a column is therefore largest at the top and smallest at the bottom. This is the reason a vortex column has a tapered vent shape. For the same amount of water mass moving spirally downward the vortex column, the angular force of the vortex is weakest at the top and strongest at the bottom, the strongest centrifugal force at the bottom of the vortex column is as a result of the smallest vortex eye at the bottom of the vortex column with highest water pressure and fastest spinning speed. This is a momentum culmination for the vortical force dynamics involved, this shape adopted by nature for vortex to form in viscous matter is absolutely optimal by maximizing with highest efficiency done most economically through conservation of energy in a state of equilibrium for viscous matter.

The dynamics of a stablized whirlpool for its vortex rings on accretion disk and vortex column on horizontal plane are standing waves, the dynamics for vortex column on a vertical axis and on the circular path around the vortex column horizontally are longitudinal waves.

The above explained how a whirlpool has a funnel-like shape and the fundamentals of how it is formed. In many ways, the principle mechanism of a whirlpool that occurs in a sink has dynamic similarity with an atmospheric free vortex that occurs naturally, this is despite the nature of their forces are quite different. Experiment of whirlpool can be easily set up for vortex observation purposes.

See an externally linked topic on "Vortex" for the elaborations on vorticity and fluid dynamics on spiral motion in a medium of viscous matter with closed streamlines.


cyclonic - Describing a direction of rotation that is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Excerpt from Dictionary.com



References and links:
Vortex - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Animated Demonstration of Bernoulli's Principle - Mark Mitchell

Centripetal force and its calculator - HyperPhysics
Inverse-square law - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Conservation of energy - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Standing waves - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Longitudinal waves
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Image of a whirlpool - Arizona State University
Image of windmill - Clipart by Northumberland ICT Team








Universal Vortical Singularity – Appendix A

Nonetheless, the Foucault pendulum could also demonstrate the cyclonic gravity field effect. See a section on "Visualization of a differential rotation with Foucault's pendulum".

A Free Energy Experiments - The spheroidal pushed-in gravitational effect of the Earth

The experiment objective is to prove the presence of a free energy source.

The cyclonic gravitational field effect of a rotating Earth has differential force on a suspended object in a Spheroidal pushed-in gravitational field that primarily causes it to spin cyclonically. The free energy is in a differential force primiraly generated by rotation of Earth. The mass on one side of the suspended object further away from the rotating axis has a net greater momentum, this is because in a same angular velocity with Earth rotating on this axis, a longer distance is covered at higher tangential velocity on the Earth's surface at a point further from this axis than a nearer point. Therefore, a differential force is developed as a result of differential momentum distribution on the suspended mass in a spheroidal pushed-in gravitational field.

This is the reason for cyclonic spinning of a suspended mass in a gravity field; in northern hemisphere, a suspended object will spin in counter clockwise direction, in southern hemisphere the object will spin in clockwise direction.

Some thin thread, a metal paper clip and a magnet.

Tie a paper clip to a thread that is suspended from the ceiling, attach the magnet to the tip of the paper clip, the magnet will stabilize and point to the north-south direction. At a northern hemisphere's location, turn the magnet 190 degree in your palm in anti-clockwise direction, and then gently let it go. At a southern hemisphere's location, turn the magnet 190 degree in clockwise direction instead.

Tthe magnet will spin cyclonically and gradually pick up in speed, after the velocity has peaked it will eventually slow down as a result of the thread being wound up. Lift up the magnet on your palm then the attached thread will become intertwinded. Remove the magnet from the paper clip, let go the thread with the paper clip on it and the thread will unwind.

Note: The longer the length of the thread, the longer the duration and the faster in speed the magnet can spin.

The phenomenal of the self-spinning magnet and the wound up thread are evidence that shows the presence of an abundant source of inexhaustible free energy as a result of Earth's rotation.

It is not necessary to use a magnet for the experiment, tie a thin string on a small mass of any size in any shape and then hang it up would also work in a slower spin.

Although the differential force acting on the suspended object is a relatively miniscular force, collectively, this is an enormous source of inexhaustible free energy in a global scale.

It can be proven that the spinning of the suspended mass is not caused by a wound-up string. First attach a mass to a roll of string at its loose end, roll out the string, then break it and tie the other end to the ceiling, the suspended mass would spin cyclonically. Next, tie the loose end from the roll of string to the ceiling, roll out the string and then break it to tie the other end to a mass, the suspended mass would also spin cyclonically. This illustrates that the cyclonic spinning of the suspended mass is not caused by the string.

This intriguing experiment was accidentally discovered when studying magnetohydrodynamics on the effects of a suspended magnetic field, then in an experiment unexpectedly, the magnet suspended on a string began to spin.

First discovered in Year 1999



A free energy experiment


This experiment is not an alternative expression for Foucault pendulum, it is also not the working of Coriolis force theory that the magnet has spun.



References and links:
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coriolis effect - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Four centuries of conflicts - Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute
Coriolis Force, an artifact of the earth's rotation - University of Illinois
Foucault pendulum - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Inverse-square law - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



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