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The UVS inductive resolution on sunspot

Based on the UVS model, a sunspot is a manifested unisonal vortex that has spawned in the photosphere of the Sun.
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The Solar System is formed in a planetary vortical system that
has manifested in the vortical system of the Milky Way.
- UVS inspired -

In the UVS worldview, the Solar System itself is a planetary vortical system with all the Solar System objects vortically revolves around the barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS), and it spirals around the dual-core Galactic Center within a larger vortical system; sunspot is a vortically manifested phenomenon formed by external vortical interactions in its nested spheroidal unisonal vortex.

From the UVS perspective, the underlying vortex of photosphere manifested by the precession effects of the Sun, renders the sunspot phenomenon.

Synergistically caused by a torque-induced precession that transforms the structure of the photosphere in its polar vortex pair, and then with its torque-free precession resonated on the photosphere, it could spawn unisonal vortex at a focal point to manifest as a sunspot.


Image of a sunspot.

UVS predicates that a sunspot is a unisonal vortex that has spawned in the photosphere of the Sun.

Based on unisonal vortex mechanism, at vortically resonated locations on the photosphere of the Sun as a result of its manifested torque-free precession, it could resonate to spawn sunspots with the negative pressure of its vortical void.

These vortical motion interactions render the effects of torque-free precession on the photosphere of the Sun with its two-axis spin, which could spawn sunspots at lower latitudes with intensified solar jet streams manifested around the boundaries of their polar vortex pair.

The cognitive paradox that renders sunspot as mysterious phenomenon, was thus resolved with its underlying structure and mechanism explicated.


The dual-axis
of a spheroid.

Watch video clips on "An experiment of acoustic sound waves" and "Non-Newtonian Fluid on a Speaker Cone" that demonstrate how mechanical force of induced seismic waves could interact in a high viscosity medium. In the experiment with some interventions, mechanically resonated standing waves with excitations in the medium can be observed to manifest a dynamic cluster of wrapped surfaces that resembles pairs of splitting dual-core vortex. Heuristically, when a synergetic of torque-induced precession and torque-free precession occurs at a focal point in the photosphere of the Sun, its could naturally generate such standing waves.

The grounding for its epistemic theories of truth: The underlying structure and mechanism of a sunspot as explicated with its hypothetical construct based on the UVS model, elucidated its delusional observations that render their misconception, mysteries, and anomalies. Thus, its cognitive paradox was simply dispersed, and all the related natural phenomena were then qualitatively analysed in the conceptual frameworks of UVS by inductive reasoning for explicating with their empirical evidence to predicate by abductive reasoning.

See the UVS topics on "The UVS' philosophy of science" and "Overviews of the UVS research" that elaborate on the methodology for the evaluations of natural phenomena, and "The vortically manifested planetary orbitals" that elaborates on how all Solar System objects propagate in vortical motions for resolving a critical cognitive paradox.

With the visualizations on the underlying structures and mechanisms of natural phenomena,
these intuitively induce the resolutions for the revelations on their actualities.
- UVS inspired -


The polar vortex pair of the Sun

From the UVS perspective, the photosphere on both hemispheres of the Sun could be subjected to its rotation to become a forced vortex pair; at equator the surface of photosphere is on a highest potential plane, and at polar center the surface of photosphere it is at a lowest potential point.

See the UVS topics on "The atmospheric nested polar vortex of Earth" and "The vortices of Jupiter" that elaborate on how nested polar vortex pairs on planets could be vortically spawned.

The driving force for the solar polar vortex pair could come from the Sun revolving around the Galactic Center in a spiral arm of the galactic vortex, and this effect transforms the forced vortex pair into a stable and long-lived free vortex pair in the photosphere at the two polar regions that cyclonically spins around the polar axis.

The pressure gradient rendered on the forced vortex pair by a focused tidal force with the Solar System alignment effect, which mainly comes from the aligned gas giants or their barycenters, could intensify the manifested solar polar vortex pair.

The extremely large and stable polar vortex pair of the Sun, renders the polar caps phenomenon as long-lived corona holes, where coronal temperature and atmospheric density are suddenly dropped in the low pressure systems of the vortical voids of their vortex columns.

UVS predicates that the long-lived corona holes in the form of polar caps of the Sun, are vortical voids in the polar vortex pair of photosphere.

The vortically manifested vortex column on a surface of the Sun is a depressed void area, whereby the usual presence of plasmatic viscous matter required for the thermal convection is vortically displaced.

The vortical column effect thus also renders the sunspot's inert dark center phenomenon, the vortical void limits convection and therefore the umbra region is much cooler and less illuminated than the surrounding.

UVS predicates that the inert dark center of a sunspot is caused by the void of vortex column that limits convection.


The long-lived polar caps.


Close-up image of a sunspot.


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The solar jet stream pair

Based on the UVS model, the phenomenon of solar jet stream pair along the equator is rendered by the vortrex pair of its polar vortex pair manifested on photosphere in its vortical system; the solar jet stream pair is a substructure of its solar polar vortex pair.

UVS predicates that the solar jet stream pair are vortex substructures impelled by the polar vortex pair of photosphere.

See the UVS topic on "Jet streams" that elaborates on the underlying structure and mechanism of atmospheric jet streams.

"We still don't understand exactly how jet streams trigger sunspot production," says Pesnell. "Nor do we fully understand how the jet streams themselves are generated." - Excerpt from "Mystery of the Missing Sunspots, Solved?"

The cognitive paradox that renders solar jet stream as a mysterious phenomenon, was thus meticulously resolved with its underlying structure and mechanism explicated.

The fact that a solar jet stream is manifested by its polar vortex as can be empirically observed with its cognitive paradox resolved, is a qualitative proof that the solar jet stream is a sub-structure of its polar vortex.

From the UVS perspective, the barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS) intensely interacts with the Sun vortically, would intensify the polar vortex pair on the photosphere of the Sun to manifest a pair of solar jet streams.

UVS predicates that the solar jet stream pair are manifested by the intense vortical interactions of the BOTSS and the Sun.

From the UVS perspective, a sunspot cluster is driven and perturbed by the solar jet stream in vortical motion by exchanging angular momentum in their interactions; the pair of solar jet streams manifest and impel sunspot clusters on both hemispheres of the Sun.

When the solar polar vortex pair is intensified, its solar jet streams are thus intensified to manifest increased number of sunspot in clusters, this renders the sunspot cluster phenomenon.

UVS predicates that sunspot cluster is impelled by its solar jet stream and this is impelled by its polar vortex in a unisonal vortical motion.


Sunspot cluster.

This is similar to how an atmospheric polar vortex on Earth impels a jet stream that in turn manifests and impels its tornado cluster.

All direct and indirect evidence illustrated herein pertaining to sunspot with the vortical manifestations of Sun's polar vortex pair, solar jet streams, sunspot clusters, and solar cycles, converged as strong evidence from the UVS perspective for suggesting that sunspot is a manifested unisonal vortex of photosphere as a result of vortical precession effects.


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The barycenter of the Solar System - BOTSS

Based on the UVS model, the Sun spirals to revolve around the dual-core Galactic Center of the Milky Way galaxy at the velocity of approximately 232 km/s, and it takes around 230 million years to make one revolving cycle.

In the Milky Way galaxy reference frame, the rotating Sun with reactive oscillations carrying all its satellites, is in fact spiraling in helical path to revolve around the dual-core Galactic Center. This infers the motion of the Sun encapsulated in the vortically manifested heliosphere, is primarily impelled by the vortical motion of the Milky Way galaxy, and the motion of the Solar System is a resonated dual-core vortical motion transferred from the motion of the vortically coalesced stellar materials.

All celestial objects are externally impelled to rotate and revolve
in vortical motion with resonated precession effects.
- UVS inspired
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In the UVS worldview, Sun and its planets were vortically coalesced from molecular clouds of stellar material in a spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy, and this predication of UVS is evidently supported with the empirically observed star HL Tau that was being vortically coalesced.

See the UVS subtopics on "A star is vortically formed in a larger vortical system that impels its galaxy" that illustrates with empirical evidence on this vortical phenomenon that is currently coalescing a star and its protoplanet in their primordial stage, "The vortical motion of the Sun", and "The vortically manifested planetary orbitals" for elaboration on how all celestial objects are rotating and revolving in vortical motion.

From the UVS perspective, the BOTSS is the central of the Solar System, and the Sun in its composite apsidal precession exchanging angular momentum with all its satellites, reactively revolves around the BOTSS. In essence, the BOTSS is the vortical gravitational singularity of the Solar System.

All Solar System objects vortically revolve around the barycenter of the Solar System.

All Solar System objects vortically revolve around the barycenter of the Solar System. - UVS inspired

The Sun vortically revolves around the BOTSS, which is a virtual center of mass in the heliosphere dominated by the Sun, and the BOTSS vortically counteracts with the Sun to exchange angular momentum with all the satellites of the Sun.

The heliosphere with high speed runaway charged particles that collectively exchange angular momentum with the Sun, would induce a significantly mass effect to also contribute for manifesting the actual barycenter of the Solar System.

Note: The conventional Solar System model does not factor in the mass effect of the ejected charged particles encapsulated in the wobbling heliosphere, which is approximately 18 trillion times the volume of the Sun. This suggests the actual barycenter of the Solar System is not the conventional barycentric coordinate, which was calculated without considering the mass effect of those ejected charged particles that propagate in spiral motion at an average velocity of 400-500 km per second, vortically pushed away from the Sun in the Solar System to fill the entire heliosphere. Volume of the Sun is ~1.412×10^18 cubic km, mass of the Sun is ~1.9891×10^30 kg, heliosphere has an approximate radius of 122 astronomical units, assuming the average density of the Solar Wind is 4.0 atoms per cubic centimeter throughout the heliosphere, the mass of a proton is ~1.6726×10^-27 kg. And therefore a very sketchy calculation with omission errors for the total mass of supersonic protons in the heliosphere is only roughly 1.70x10^20 kg, but this could have a significant precessing effect on the Solar System in an overall angular momentum of ~7.67x10^28 kg m s^-1 with its 450 km average velocity, and this is apparently not a miniscule effect. If consider an upper limit for the density of solar wind at 7.0 atoms per cubic centimeter as suggested by the other solar wind research, the potential mass effect of protons in the heliosphere is approximately 6.75% of the Sun's mass.

A 3D Solar System model with all Solar System objects revolving around the BOTSS in vortical motion, is imperative for the correct understanding of its celestial mechanics.

Remarks: Needs professional capabilities with the technology to detect the motion of the BOTSS relative to Sun, and the instruments to make measurements for data logging, so as to construct an interactive 3D Solar System model with the physics and ephemeris to illustrate by tracking how the Sun exactly revolves around the BOTSS in one integral cycle to verify the solar cycle.

Further research in the oscillation cycles of the Solar System alignment effect with the gas giants and their barycenters with the drifts for the predicated BOTSS, could provide the foundation for its quantitative predictions of solar activities that are associated with a vortically moving Sun, which spirals with its reactive motion to revolve around the barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS).

And as a matter of fact, the mainstream Solar System model with a static Sun postulated as the center of the Solar System is fundamentally flawed; it was fallaciously based on a cognitive paradox and therefore had critically suffered its foundational crisis.

See the UVS subtopic on "The cognitive paradox fallacy in Kepler's law of planetary motion" for further elaboration on this cognitive paradox.

The Sun is not the center of the Solar System. - UVS inspired -


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The solar cycle

In the UVS worldview, the intensity for the precession effect of the Sun that causes sunspots to spawn, is rendered by the barycenter effects of the Solar System. A sunspot is a vortex of photosphere that gyrates around its oscillating center of mass, which is a vortically manifested barycenter effect.

From the UVS perspective, Sun vortically revolves around the barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS), is as a result of the Sun is exchanging angular momentum with the barycenters of all other Solar System objects, their sub-satellites, and all other stuff that are vortically encapsulated in the nested spheroidal vortex of the Sun. Sunspots are impelled by the polar vortex pair with its pair of solar jet streams, and the polar vortex of the Sun manifested by the precession effect of the revolving Sun rotating on its axis, is precessing in the axis of the invariable plane that oscillates in its rotation, which is being primarily modulated by the four gas giants.

Heuristically, the four gas giants are the dominating planets in the Solar System for their exchange of angular momentum, and with superposition principle on the vortical effects of their barycenters when aligning with the BOTSS and the Sun, these nonmaterial objects could dominantly render physical actions on the photosphere of the Sun, and thus subliminally drive the empirically observed solar cycle with their overall oscillating orbital forcing on the Sun.

All physical objects are ruled by the vortical motion of their nonmaterial objects. - UVS inspired -

Watch a video clip on "SkyMarvels™ SOLAR SYSTEM BARYCENTER" that illustrates a quasi barycenter motion of the Solar System.

Author's note: The concept for the barycenter of the Solar System was independently conceived with the UVS model of a vortical universe, it was later discovered on the 9th of August in 2013 that a video clip titled as "SkyMarvels™ SOLAR SYSTEM BARYCENTER" also depicted this concept. This was an excellent video presentation on the concept for the barycenter of the Solar System, hence its link was then inserted in the UVS web site.

Sunspots imaged on 22 June 2004 around the period of a solar minimum.

In the reference frame of a fixed barycenter of Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn, it could be perceived that the Sun reactively revolve around this barycenter.

With this example as the basis for the thought experiment by contemplating with the animation on right that illustrates how the Sun reactively revolves around the barycenter (+) to make one oscillating cycle, perceive Sun in its reactive curvilinear path revolves to align two times with the oscillating barycenter of Jupiter and Saturn (BJS) to complete one cycle around the BOTSS (Note: Both of these barycenter were not indicated in the animation).

The angular motion of the revolving barycenter of Jupiter and Saturn with oscillating angular speed as a result of its two planetary conjunctions, would periodically aligned with the BOTSS and the reactively moving Sun.

Download this simulated barycentric planetarium video to see the planetary simulation of a reactively revolving Sun in the SSB barycentric coordinate system. Note: SSB is the barycenter of the Sun and its nine major planets, it is a quasi BOTSS.

From the UVS perspective, this oscillation of aligned Sun-BOTSS that periodically aligns with a significant barycenter of the gas giants in optimized superposition of its precession effect, could render the solar cycle phenomenon to manifest the solar minima and solar maxima with its orbital forcing on the Sun.

For the example, the reference frame of this animation is fixed on the barycenter (+) of Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn.

UVS predicates that the solar cycle is driven by the periodical oscillations of a significant planetary barycenter aligning with the reactively moving Sun and the BOTSS.

Paradoxically, it is unthinkable to visualize the non existing objects in the Solar System that could not be visually observed.

See the groundbreaking UVS case study on the barycenter drivers of the solar cycle that illustrate what were driving the solar cycles. These case study suffice as the strong evidence that the solar cycle is primarily driven by the periodical alignments of the gas giants' barycenters, SSB, and the Sun.

See the UVS subtopic on "Cometary outburst" for some illustrations of empirically observed Lagrangian points that were manifested in the Solar System, and the case studies of "A series of empirically observed Comet 29P outbursts from January 2008 to April 2010" in twelve cometary outburst events that illustrate Lagrangian points in a groundbreaking discovery, which has had thus contributed to its revolutionary discoveries in the microcosms of subatomic and elementary structures with its comparative analysis.

You simply won't find activities that you don't visualize. - Scott F. Gilbert

Remarks: The alignment of Jupiter-SSB-Sun was initially investigated against the observed solar cycles, and concluded it is not the direct driver for the solar cycle. The SSB was also investigated to be not causing the Sun's magnetic pole to be reversed when the Sun moved into it. After investigating the barycenters of the gas giants that align with the alignment of the Sun and SSB, it was then revealed that the periodical oscillation of the gas giant barycenters is the primary driver of the solar cycle.

The 11 year solar cycle is merely a putative period; it was averaged from the 24 solar cycles with periods that range from 9 year to 13.6 year.

Seemingly, a quarter cycle of the Jupiter-Sun-Saturn integral cycle was overrun from manifesting its solar maximum in 5 cases of solar minimum (05 Min, 07 Min, 12 Min, 14 Min, 23 Min.). All these 5 solar minimum cases apparently have had their Sun-SSB-BJS alignment peculiarly negated from manifesting their alternating solar maxima. Apparently they were peculiarly negated by the conjunctions of BUN, Sun, and BJS that had perturbed the effectiveness of the Sun-SSB-BJS alignments. (Note: BUN - Barycenter of Uranus and Neptune, BJS - Barycenter of Jupiter and Neptune.)

See a paper on "A Solar Cycle Lost in 1793-1800" that suggests a solar cycle was lost before the solar minimum of solar cycle 5.

This animation highlights the transit of Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn conjunctions in four quarters for the solar cycles from 12 Max to 16 Max, which the solar minima and solar maxima in this selective period were mostly driven by the alignment of Sun-SSB-BJS.

As shown in the above animation, in the period from 1883 December to 1928 April while there were 10 alignments of Sun-SSB-BJS, one alignment was apparently negated from manifestation when Jupiter and Saturn was also aligned with the alignment of BUN-Sun-BJS superior conjunction, which has had occurred just before the ISN proposed solar minimum of solar cycle 14 in January 1902. Click here to see the supposedly negated alignment.

The alignment apparently has had occurred in Sep 1901 when Jupiter and Saturn was also aligned with the alignment of BUN-Sun-BJS superior conjunction. In the alignment, Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn was in their inferior conjunction, and was also aligned with the Sun-SSB alignment.

This alignment in Sep 1901 was actually a very optimized Sun-SSB-BJSUN alignment, and could well be the actual solar minimum of solar cycle 14. Instead, it should be the Sun-SSB-BJS alignment in Jan 1902 that was negated from manifesting the solar maximum of solar cycle 15. In another perspective, the ISN proposed solar minimum of solar cycle 14 in Jan 1902, could have been the solar maximum of solar cycle 15 if its Sun-SSB-BJS alignment was not negated by the very optimized Sun-SSB-BJSUN alignment that was preceding it just 4 months ago.

The orbital resonance of the barycenter of Jupiter and Saturn (~59.3 year) and the barycenter of Uranus and Neptune (~172 year) has a near synodic cycle of ~178 year.

In a ~178 year synodic cycle (From SC03 Max in 1778 May with >350 sunspots, to SC19 Max in 1958 Mar with >350 sunspots) of BUN , Sun, and BJS, the 36 alignments of Sun-SSB-BJS was apparently negated 4 times by BUN. It was negated two times (SC05 Min to SC07 Min) before and after the superior conjunctions of BUN-Sun-BJS, and also negated two times (SC12 Min to SC14 Min) before and after the inferior conjunctions of BUN-BJS-Sun. One ~20 year full cycle of the Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn conjunction makes 4 alignments of Sun-SSB-BJS, so in 9 full cycles (178/20 = 8.9) of this conjunction occurring in the ~178 year near synodic cycle with the 4 negated alignments, the negations render the ~22 year full solar cycle {178/(9 - [4/4]) = 22.25}.

In a span of ~262 years from 1755 to 2017 that had manifested 24 solar cycles, despite Jupiter-Sun-Saturn had completed 26 half integral cycles (262/10), it had lost 5 quarter cycles (or 2.5 half integral cycle) to the negation. This apparently renders the average 11 year solar cycle {262 / (26 - 2.5) = 11.15}.

This suggests the ~22 year full solar cycles were mainly modulated by the conjunctions of Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn in their ~20 year integral cycle, and were primarily triggered by the Sun-SSB-BJS alignment, which were being perturbed or negated by the alignments of BUN, Sun, and BJS that thus alter its periodicity.

Download this simulated heliocentric planetarium video to observe the oscillation on how Jupiter and a quasi barycenter of the Solar System (BSS) race against each other around the Sun in the heliocentric coordinate system.

Heuristically, the subliminal driver of the solar minimum phenomenon in one half of the oscillating solar cycle, could render the alignment of the Sun and BOTSS with relatively slower angular speed is being aligned by the barycenter of the gas giants. (Note: This hypothesis is pending on the add-on planetarium tool for its evaluation.)

UVS predicates that solar minimum is rendered by the alignment of the Sun and the BOTSS with relatively lower angular speed is being aligned by the barycenter of the gas giants.

Heuristically, the subliminal driver of the solar maximum phenomenon in the other half the oscillating solar cycle, could render the alignment of the Sun and BOTSS with relatively higher angular speed is aligning with the barycenter of the gas giants. (Note: This hypothesis is pending on the add-on planetarium tool for its evaluation.)

UVS predicates that solar maximum is rendered by the alignment of the Sun and the BOTSS with relatively higher angular speed is aligning with the barycenter of the gas giants.

Heuristically, the oscillation of the inner core and the photosphere of the Sun impelled by a planetary motion that synchronized with the four gas giants, could periodically intensify and weaken the solar polar vortex pair in its oscillation. A relatively forward angular motion of the photosphere with its dynamo effect, could render a solar minimum and solar maximum cycle, and then flips the reversed magnetic pole of the Sun back to normal. A relative forward motion of the inner core with its reversed dynamo effect, could also render a solar minimum and solar maximum cycle, and then flips to reverse the magnetic pole of the Sun. The hypothetical four stage oscillating dynamo effect of the photosphere and an inner core of the Sun, could render the 22-year full solar cycle.


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The ~60-year synodic cycle of Jupiter and Saturn

"Active region 9393 as seen by the MDI instrument on NASA’s Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite featured the largest sunspot group observed so far during the current solar cycle. On 30 March 2001, the sunspot area within the group spanned an area more than 13 times the entire surface of the Earth." - Excerpt from Wikipedia.
The Solar System objects arrangement for this event was almost aligned Sun-Jupiter-Saturn in its inferior conjunction, and this solar event had occurred near its solar maximum in 2001 Nov of solar cycle 23.

The two types of conjunction for Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn, are illustrated on right.

Note: These illustrations with the Solar System objects in the heliocentric coordinate system, are not to scale on size and distance.

The inferior conjunction for Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn, are aligned in the order of Sun-Jupiter-Saturn in every 20-year approximately.

In the reference frame of a heliocentric Sun, the quasi barycenter (+) of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn makes one oscillating revolution moving around the Sun in ~20 years.

It takes ~10 years for switching from the inferior conjunction to the superior conjunction while the barycenter moves toward the Sun, and it takes takes another ~10 years for switching from the superior conjunction to the inferior conjunction while the barycenter moves away from the Sun in this frame of reference.

See the UVS topic on "The interactions of the hyperspheric pushed-in gravity in superior and inferior conjunction" that elaborates on how the Sun is being pushed in and out of the barycenter of Jupiter and Saturn.

Superior conjunction of the aligned Jupiter-Sun-Saturn with the barycenter (+) of Solar System inside the Sun. 

Inferior conjunction of the aligned Sun-Jupiter-Saturn with the barycenter (+) of Solar System outside the Sun.

See an externally linked topic on "Superior and inferior conjunction" for its elaboration, and "Motions of Observable Structures Ruled by Hierarchical Two-body Gravitation in the Universe" for a proposed mathematical model on revolving celestial objects around barycenters.

From the UVS perspective, a significant precession cycle that significantly affect the barycenter motion of the Solar System, is apparently caused by the near ratio orbital resonance of Jupiter and Saturn. It takes around 59.3 years for these two gas giant planets and the Sun to approximately complete one synodic cycle.

In the orbital resonance of Jupiter and Saturn with a 5:2 near ratio, for every five revolving cycle of Jupiter having completed around the Sun in a period of approximately 59.3 years (11.86 yr x5), Saturn will complete a little bit more than two revolving cycle (29.4571 yrs x 2 cycle = ~58.9 yrs) around the Sun with a slight angular phase shift.

Heuristically, assuming Sun revolves around the Galactic Center at a constant velocity, in the 59.3 years orbital resonance cycle, when Sun, Jupiter and Saturn formed their superior conjunction with Jupiter moved nearest to its perihelion, with their barycenter positioned at a nearest point from the mass center of the Sun, it would render their minimum precession effect as a significant factor for decreasing solar activities.

And when Sun, Jupiter and Saturn formed their inferior conjunction with Jupiter moved nearest to its aphelion, with their barycenter positioned at a farthermost point from the mass center of the Sun, it would render their maximum precession effect as a significant factor for increasing solar activities.


The orbital resonance of Jupiter and Saturn takes ~59.3 years to complete one full cycle.

See the UVS topic on "Pre-heaven Bagua" that elaborates on how the ~60-year sexagenary cycle, could be used in the Chinese calendar to predict climatic events on Earth.



The Hallstatt cycle and its quasi cycles

Heuristically, the hypothesized Hallstatt cycle in its quasi cycles that center between ~2,100 years to ~2,500 years when looking at grand solar minima and maximum over the Holocene, is mainly rendered by the planetary motion of the four gas giants.

The ~172 year sidereal cycle of Uranus and Neptune, is phase shifted by ~25.7 degree in the invariable plane, it thus takes ~14 sidereal cycles of Uranus and Neptune to complete a 360 degree turn in the invariable plane, which would render a ~2,408 year synodic cycle.

The ~178 year synodic cycle of in 14 synodic cycles of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, render a ~2,492 year synodic cycle. This synodic orbital resonance, apparently is the causality of the upper limit of the hypothesized Hallstatt cycle in its quasi cycles that center between ~2,100 years to ~2,500 .

The lower limit 2,100 year quasi cycle of the Hallstatt cycle, is apparently rendered by the synodic cycles of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus; the ~60 year synodic cycle of Jupiter and Saturn in ~35 cycles (60 x 35 = 2,100), synchronizes with ~25 orbital cycles of Uranus with an orbital period of ~84 years (25 x 84 = 2,100).

In the14 synodic cycles of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune of ~178 year periods, 14 orbital cycles of Neptune with an orbital period of 164.8 year would render a ~2,318 year cycle (14 x 164.8).

Over the Holocene when looking at grand solar minima and maximum, the various synodic orbital resonance with different combinations of the four gas giants orbital cycles, have the synodic cycles of ~2,100 year, ~2,318 year, ~2,408 year, and ~2,500 year.

These various synodic resonance cycles of the four gas giants, rendered the Hallstatt cycle and its quasi cycles.

See the paper on "On the astronomical origin of the Hallstatt oscillation found in radiocarbon and climate records throughout the Holocene", and an external links on "Form and Phyllotaxis" that illustrates the intriguing planetary sidereal and synodic periods.

Remarks: This UVS subtopic on "The Hallstatt cycle and its quasi cycles", was induced with the discussions on planetary cycles with Dr. Rosa Hilda Compaqnucci.


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Grand solar minima and maxima

From the UVS perspective, a grand solar minimum could be caused by an extreme arrangement of Solar System objects with aligned Jupiter-Sun-Saturn that was overall synchronized and balanced with all other planets in a longer period precession cycle. This resulted in the combined precession effect of a group of planets is cancelled by the combined precession effect of another group of planets for their interactions with the Sun and the BOTSS.

In December 1811 during the Dalton minimum, there was a superior conjunction with almost aligned Jupiter-Earth-Sun-Saturn-Neptune.

In December 2031, the arrangement of Solar System objects would be a superior conjunction of almost aligned Jupiter-supermoon-Sun-Earth-Saturn-Uranus. This is a catalyst for manifesting a period of lowest solar activities, which could render a grand solar minimum period, and its synchronized Little Ice Age event to happen on Earth with the low pressure systems of the extremely intensified nested polar vortex caused by the alignment of Solar System objects.

UVS predicates that grand solar minima are caused by the Jupiter-Sun-Saturn superior conjunction with all other planets to push-in the Sun nearest to the BOTSS.

Center of a star revolving at a lower velocity when it is nearer to a barycenter (+) with a small revolving planet.

In the UVS worldview that perceives gravity is a spheroidal pushed-in effect, an aligned Jupiter-Sun-Saturn superior conjunction with center of the Sun being pushed-in nearest to the barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS), would reduce the intensity for the planetary precession effects of a rotating Sun when it wobbles very near to the BOTSS at a lowest revolving speed with its least angular momentum, hence minimizing the intensity of the sunspot activity in all sorts of Solar System objects arrangement with the BOTSS during the solar minima.

From the UVS perspective, a grand solar maximum could be caused by an extreme arrangement of Solar System objects with aligned Sun-Jupiter-Saturn that was also aligned with most of the planets at the same side. This resulted in a maximum combined precession effect with a group of planets for their interactions with the Sun and the BOTSS.

A grand solar maximum occurred in June 1126 during the Medieval Warm Period, there was an inferior conjunction with almost aligned Sun-Jupiter-Saturn-BUN (Barycenter of Uranus and Neptune). Another grand solar maximum occurred in June 1941 during the Modern Maximum, there was an inferior conjunction with aligned Sun-Barycenter of Jupiter and Saturn-Uranus.

If an arrangement of Sun-Earth-Jupiter-Saturn-Uranus-Neptune occurs in summer, high intensity sunspot activities could be expected. This is a catalyst for manifesting a period of intensified solar activities, which would render a grand solar maximum period, and its synchronized global warming period to also happen on Earth with the high pressure system of the extremely intensified nested polar vortex caused by the alignment of Solar System objects.

Center of a star revolving at a higher velocity when it is farther from a barycenter (+) with a larger revolving planet.

UVS predicates that grand solar maxima are caused by the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn inferior conjunction with all other planets to push-out the Sun farthermost from the BOTSS.

In the UVS worldview that perceives gravity is a spheroidal pushed-in effect, an aligned BOTSS-Jupiter-Saturn inferior conjunction with the center of the Sun being pushed-out farthest away from the BOTSS, it would intensify the planetary precession effects of a rotating Sun when it wobbles farther away from the BOTSS at a highest revolving speed with its strongest angular momentum, hence maximizing the intensity of sunspot activity in all sorts of Solar System objects arrangement with the BOTSS during the solar maxima.


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Little Ice Age

In the UVS worldview, the Little Ice Age event where there were climate minima on Earth during some of the grand solar minima, were analytically perceived to have had occurred in the superior conjunctions of a much balanced Jupiter-Sun-Saturn arrangement with Uranus and/or Neptune were also aligned, thus rendering the center of the Sun to be positioned at nearest to the barycenter of the Solar System. And Earth and Moon during winters in these grand solar minima, were also found to be in alignment with these alignments of major Solar System objects during the climate minima.

From the UVS perspective, these various periods of low solar activities, were caused by a long cycle precession effect of the Solar System. In those moments, the Sun vortically revolved at lower tangential speeds with their least angular momentum around the BOTSS; lower kinetic energy of the Sun revolving the BOTSS render lower solar activities.

The BOTSS with the alignment of the major Solar System objects, would be inside the Sun and was at a nearest point from the mass center of the Sun. The Sun at a nearest point from the BOTSS, was therefore spiraling at its lowest speeds through space with lower angular momentum. Hence, with the factor of reduced total solar irradiance, and the occasional alignment of Solar System objects that extremely intensifies a nested polar vortex on Earth during winter in its axial tilt, it therefore could render the Little Ice Age phenomenon on Earth that synchronized with a grand solar minimum.

From the UVS perspective, the criteria for the Little Ice Age manifestations, are rendered by the lowered planetary angular momentum in grand solar minima with the superior conjunction of the gas giants has aligned with the Earth and Moon during the winters.

See the UVS topic on "The atmospheric effects of polar vortex" that elaborates on how polar climate could be vortically extended toward the equator with the alignment of Solar System objects in the winters on Earth.

UVS predicates that Little Ice Age events are as a result of the superior conjunctions of major Solar System objects with Earth and Moon also aligned during the winters.

Watch a documentary film on "Little Ice Age, Big Chill." that elaborate on a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period, and a paper on "Dynamical characterization of the last prolonged solar minima", which predicts an imminent Grand Minimum with quantitative analysis.

See external links on "U.S. Midwest, Northeast hit by bitter cold temperatures" that reported on how a widened polar vortex of North Pole were causing cold climate further South, "Evidence for Planetary Forcing of the Cosmic Ray Intensity and Solar Activity Throughout the Past 9400 Years" that elaborates on an empirically observed orbital cycle of Uranus and Neptune, "Solar inertia motion" that illustrates the trefoil-like trajectory of Sun governed by the four gas giants with a ~178.7 year cycle, and "Piers Corbyn: Long Range Weather Forecast" that illustrates on a 220 year cycle matching climate pattern of the past that could be used for long range climate forecasting of the Earth (Inserted in May 2014).

Dr. Timo Niroma discovered a 220 year long range solar cycle, which suggests the next grand solar minima would be in 2031, and thus the coldest moment of an anticipated Little Ice Age can be expected at then.

Dr. Ivanka Charvátová illustrated a ~179 year solar inertial motion cycle, which also suggests Sun is now entering another period of low solar activities like it did in the past four grand solar minima, but stated that the physical mechanism is not yet known.

(Inserted in May 2014)

See a webpage on "Beyond Landscheidt" that illustrates grand solar minima are modulated by a specific arrangement of the four gas giants to render the Angular Momentum Perturbations in a Sun-SSB angular momentum cycle, which recurs every178.8 year.

(Inserted in March 2018)

The orbital inclination of the Earth's orbit has a ~100,000 year cycle relative to the invariable plane, the axial precession of Earth has a cycle of ~25,800 year, the axial tilt of Earth that causes seasons on Earth has a cycle of ~1 year, the approximate orbital resonance of Jupiter and Saturn has an approximate synodic cycle of ~59.3 year, the orbital resonance of Uranus and Neptune has a sidereal cycle of ~172 year, the orbital resonance of the barycenter of Jupiter and Saturn and the barycenter of Uranus and Neptune has a near synodic cycle of ~178 year, the Sun has a full solar cycle of ~22 year, the orbital resonance of Jupiter and Saturn has a sidereal cycle of ~20 year, and et al. Heuristically, climate variations on Earth are primarily governed by the mechanism that renders the compositions of long and short precession cycles in the Solar System.

Heuristically, the ~20 year cycle of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn, interacting with the ~11 year solar cycle with the oscillating alignment barycenter of Jupiter and Saturn, Sun and BOTSS, would generate a ~220 year prominent precession cycle (20x11) for the Sun to move around the BOTSS; this could be the composite precession cycle that renders the long range solar cycle of 220 years as proposed by Dr. Timo Niroma.

And 3 cycles of the ~59.3 year synodic cycles of Jupiter and Saturn interacting with the ~172 year sidereal cycle of Uranus and Neptune in their orbital resonance Jupiter, and Saturn, could render the solar inertial motion of a synodic cycle of ~179 years as proposed by Dr. Ivanka Charvátová.

See the UVS topics on "Ice age" that elaborates on how the freezing up of the Earth could be caused by a vortical mechanism of its planetary cycle, "The axial precession of the Earth" that elaborates on an orbital forcing of the Earth, and an externally linked topic on "Orbital forcing" that elaborates on the effect on climate of slow changes in the tilt of the Earth's axis and shape of the orbit.

Local physical laws are determined by the large-scale structure of the universe. - Mach's principle

.
Solar wind

Based on the UVS model, Sun is impelled by its spheroidal unisonal vortex that precesses in its two-axis spin. Its consolidating vortical motion on the Sun will cause the Sun to almost isotropically radiate charged particles by the reactive centrifugal forces of its manifested vortrices on photosphere.

See the UVS topic on "Dust devil" that elaborates on how its vortrex mechanism vortically spin out charged particles with its manifested reactive centrifugal force.

Based on unisonal vortex mechanism, the reactive centrifugal force from vortical motion of photosphere as a result of precession effects could vortically spin and charge solar particles. And with push angular momentum, the charged particles of proton and electron are ejected with reactive centrifugal force as solar wind; this renders the solar wind phenomenon.

UVS predicates that solar winds with charged particles of protons and electrons are vortically spun out from the photosphere with reactive centrifugal force.

From the UVS perspective, the photosphere of the Sun undergoes a resonated vortical process that splits the hydrogen atoms as charged particles of electrons and protons, and then spew out the charged particles as solar wind. This particle radiation process is caused by the manifested vortical motion of torque-free precession in the photosphere for the charged particles that have overcome the Sun's escape velocity.

See an externally linked topic on "Observations of Alfvén Vortices in the fast solar wind" that elaborates on the magnetic vortices in solar wind.

The empirically observed vortices in solar wind with charged particles of proton and electron, is a strong evidence for subatomic particles are vortically radiated as solar wind.



Other vortical phenomena of the Sun

From the UVS perspective, the Sun precessing with varying revolving velocity around the barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS), is the causality for the solar variation with changes in the intensity of radiation emitted by the Sun. Based on unisonal vortex mechanism, the faster the Sun revolves in its spiral motion, the higher is its solar radiation, and the slower the Sun revolves in its spiral motion, the lower is its solar radiation; the vortical motion of the Sun fundamentally renders the solar variation phenomenon.

UVS predicates that solar variation of the Sun's radiation is proportionally caused by the varying velocity of the Sun oscillating around the BOTSS.

See an externally linked topic on "Solar to river flow and lake level correlations" that illustrates sunspots has dominating effects to the ecosystems on Earth.

In the UVS worldview, the eco-systems on Earth are extended far out into the Solar System are significantly influenced by the precession effects of the BOTSS.

UVS predicates that the eco-systems on Earth are extended far out into the Solar System are significantly influenced by the oscillating BOTSS.

From the UVS perspective, vortex activities on Earth would also be peaked when Earth are also aligned with Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the BOTSS in all sort of planetary aligned arrangements. This is the causality for the occasional synchronized peaks for sunspot activities on Sun with vortex activities on Earth, such as the events of aurora, storm, and cyclone.

This is how the eco-systems on Earth are vortically extended far out into the Solar System, and they are dominantly ruled by the BOTSS.

Vortical motion could explain the anomaly on how a stream of intensified charged particles attaining escape velocity by culmination of vortical momentum, could eject out from the sunspot. It is a paradox for thermodynamics of the universe that in the absence of extra heat source, that sunspot could eject ionized gas stronger than the surrounding hotter region of photosphere; this is inexplicable with the thermodynamics concept that posits heat as the first principle for the motion of matter in the observable universe.

From the UVS perspective, kinetic energy in the torque-free precession of photosphere is converted to thermal energy in the vortical process for its plasma glow and radiation.

Vortical motion is the first principle for the mechanism of the Solar System, and heat is merely its effect.

Vortical motion of aether is the first principle for thermodynamics of the universe. - UVS inspired -


.
Other vortical structures of the Sun

Based on the UVS model, the dominant dual-core vortex that manifests and impels a sunspot, vortically coalesces charged particles into plasma jets in closed streamlines as satellite vortices that formed around its spinning dual-core vortex column.

From the UVS perspective, the sunspot's penumbra is a manifested chain of magnetic satellite vortices as jets that has formed as a ring torus structure around the vortically manifested sunspot.

UVS predicates that the penumbra of a sunspot is a chain of satellite vortices manifested in a ring torus structure and it forms around the vortically manifested sunspot.


The sunspot's penumbra.


A ring torus structure.

Schematic of a dominant unisonal vortex in a progressive vortical paradigm arrangement.

The high speed spin of plasma jet streams in vortical motion within the corona, could explain the corona is much hotter than the surface of the Sun with tightly packed photosphere that has much limited degree of freedom for motion; kinetic energy of plasma jet streams with vortical motion in high speed spin within the corona are converted to excessive heat.


From the UVS perspective, a dual-core unisonal vortex with its dual-core separated on the surface of photosphere, renders the sunspot pair phenomenon.

A dual-core unisonal vortex of photosphere is caused by an oscillating Sun with its manifested torque-free precession.

The oscillating Sun with regressing viscous matter generates a main center of equilibrium and a secondary center of equilibrium that can be separated on the surface of photosphere, and the manifested ring torus structure could dynamically merged as a dual-core.

An illustrations for a sunspot pair and some sunspot pairs.

A center of equilibrium is where the vortex column would resonate in its torque-free precession to open up by displacement of photosphere with its reactive centrifugal force to vortically form a sunspot.

UVS predicates that a sunspot pair is a dual-core unisonal vortex of the Sun's photosphere and its dual-core is separated on the surface of photosphere.

From the UVS perspective, the observed dynamo effect of a sunspot is caused by a spinning photosphere vortex that generates huge electrical currents and strong magnetic storm around the sunspot, and the magnetohydrodynamics on photosphere beams magnetic field outward into space; magnetic fields around the sunspot and corona loops are caused by the dynamo effect of vortex activities.

Based on unisonal vortex mechanism, the breaking at vortex column of a colossal loop of solar prominence would cause what was observed as the corona mass ejection phenomenon.

The angular momentum from spinning force of the broken vortex column, would blast charged particles with reactive centrifugal force that have overcome the escape velocity of the Sun (617.7km/s), thus propagates the ejecta into space.

When an instability occurs, such as by the built up of excessive vortical energy, a dissipating vortex or the sudden drops in vortex intensity when the Sun is perturbed, the solar prominence could break most easily at the mid-section of the vortex column. This is apparently the most vulnerable section with the smallest diameter vortex column that spins at the highest speed in its vortical culmination.

UVS predicates that corona mass ejection is caused by the conserved angular momentum in the vortex column of a ruptured solar prominence.

Watch video clips on "Massive Solar Storms" and "SOHO NASA Solar Flare", see also an externally linked topic on "Coronal mass ejection".


Corona loops of a sunspot.


A ruptured solar prominence.

See the UVS subtopic on "A comparative analysis of the Solar System with the UVS atomic model" that elaborates on a comparative analysis for the structure of the Solar System perceived with the UVS atomic model.


The structure of the observable universe is a nested spheroidal vortical formation that has
formed and transformed in a paradigm of torus-shaped spheroidal unisonal vortex
.”
- UVS inspired -

 

 

 

Glossary:
empirical
-
Derived from or guided by experience or experiment; provable or verifiable by experience or experiment.
epistemic
-
The conditions for acquiring knowledge. 
first principle
-
The first basis from which a thing is known.
hypothesis 
-
A proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis) or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. 
natural phenomenon
-
A natural phenomenon is a non-artificial event in the physical sense, and therefore not produced by humans, although it may affect humans.
paradigm
-
A set of forms all of which contain a particular element, esp. the set of all inflected forms based on a single stem or theme.
paradox
-
Any thing, or situation exhibiting an apparently contradictory nature with false proposition.
singularity
-
A peculiarity, a unique quality, a state of being singular. Note: The term singularity here does not refer to mathematical singularity nor the gravitational singularity.  It has very general reference to a class of existence with a similarity.
solar unisonal vortex
-
A unisonal vortex formed in the photosphere of the Sun.
unison 
-
A process in which all elements behave in the same way at the same time; simultaneous or synchronous parallel action. 
universe
-
The totality of known or supposed objects and phenomena throughout space; the cosmos; macrocosm. It is beyond the defined observable universe.
viscous
-
Having the property of viscosity; sticky.
vortical singularity
-
A spheroidal culmination of aether with vortical motion that unisonally spawns its resonated and nested satellite vortical fractals in its vortical paradigm. 

 

 

“Your work is really amazing.” (18th Dec 2017)
- Dr. Rosa Hilda Compagnucci, a climatologist accredited to the Nobel Peace Prize bestowed on the IPCC in 2007, PhD degree in Meteorological Sciences, University of Buenos Aires; UBA · Department of Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences. Co-authored paper on "Dynamical characterization of the last prolonged solar minima", which elaborates with quantitative analysis on an imminent Grand Minimum.

 

 

~ With credit to Wilf James for highlighting that the anomaly of intensified ionized particle ejection that corresponds with solar cycle of sunspot is inexplicable with heat as the first principle for thermodynamics of the universe.

~ With thanks to oldbrew from TALLBLOKE'S TALKSHOP for his post that provided the link to "Interview: Is climate change caused by solar inertial motion?" that illustrates the trefoil-like trajectory of Sun governed by the Jupiter-Saturn with a 10 year sunspot cycle.

~ With thanks to Roger Tallbloke from TALLBLOKE'S TALKSHOP for his post that provided the link to "Evidence for Planetary Forcing of the Cosmic Ray Intensity and Solar Activity Throughout the Past 9400 Years".

~ With special thanks to Dr. Rosa Compagnucci (PhD degree in Meteorological Sciences) for the contribution to the UVS treatise with her co-authored paper on "Dynamical characterization of the last prolonged solar minima", which predicts an imminent Grand Minimum with quantitative analysis.

~ With special thanks to GW of SkyMarvels for his email with the link to the "Celestia" 3D interactive planetarium program.

~ With thanks to Kevin of Thunderbolt for his post that provided the link to "Form and Phyllotaxis" that illustrates the planetary sidereal and synodic periods.

 

Note: The mechanism for cyclical arrangements with precession effects in the Solar System were independently perceived with the UVS model, and these were conceived without any prior reference; the articles for the sixty-year sexaganary cycle, the ~179 year prominent solar cycle discovered by Dr. Ivanka Charvatova, and the ~220 year longer period prominent solar cycle discovered by Dr. Timo Niroma, were later found to be available on the Internet.

 


June 6th 2007, revamped in Feb 2018.

References and links:
Sunspot - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sun - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar System - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Precession - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Galactic Center - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mystery of the Missing Sunspots, Solved? - From NASA Science; Science news
Apsidal precession - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Barycenter - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Angular momentum - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Torsion - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Negative pressure
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pressure gradient - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Superposition principle - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Precession of the ecliptic - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jupiter - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Saturn - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Invariable plane - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Axial tilt - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orbital eccentricity - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Foundational crisis - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Conjunction - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Superior and inferior conjunction - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Motions of Observable Structures Ruled by Hierarchical Two-body Gravitation in the Universe - By Dr Yongfeng Yang of Bureau of Water Resources of Shandong Province.
Solar inertia motion - Ivanka Charvátová and Pavel Hejda
Interview: Is climate change caused by solar inertial motion - KLIMASKEPTIK.CZ
Invariable plane - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orbital inclination - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Axial precession - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Axial tilt - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orbital forcing - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heart (symbol) - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Möbius strip - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heuristic - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Planet Finder - By Dr. Benjamin Crowell, author of Light and Matter
Orbital resonance - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hallstatt cycle - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Holocene - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Perihelion - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar cycle - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coronal hole - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Milky Way - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Inclinations - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Periapsides - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lunisolar precession - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ice age - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar irradiance - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Evidence for Planetary Forcing of the Cosmic Ray Intensity and Solar Activity Throughout the Past 9400 Years - By Ken McCracken, Jurg Beer and Friedhelm Steinhilber
Sexagenary cycle - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mass center - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dalton minimum - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Little Ice Age - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Medieval Warm Period - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Modern Maximum - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Corona Mass Ejection - University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)
Corona loop - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar prominence - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Reactive centrifugal force - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Escape velocity of the Sun - From Yahoo! Anssers
Coronal mass ejection - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar flares - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Corona - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar wind - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Observations of Alfvén Vortices in the fast solar wind - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Particle radiation - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heliosphere - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar variation - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar to river flow and lake level correlations - Posted by Anthony Watts
Eco-systems - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Magnetohydrodynamics - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Image of sunspot and charts - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Image of sunspots - Swedish Institute for Solar Physics,
ISP, Göran Scharmer and Mats Löfdahl
Imag of a sunspot - Spaceweatherlive.com
Image of a two-axis spheroid - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Images for coronal magnetic field lines - From the Physics Department of Imperial College
Image of X-ray polar sunspot - Nasa; + plus Magazine
Image of corona loops - The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and Spaceflight
Image of a ring torus structure - LucasVB; public domain
Image of Sunspot pair -
From Chaisson & McMillan, Astronomy Today
Image of corona mass ejection - Space Environment Center, NOAA
Video on "SkyMarvels™ SOLAR SYSTEM BARYCENTER" - By celestia4allCreator
Video on an experiment of acoustic sound waves - etherpimp, YouTube
Video on non-Newtonian Fluid on a Speaker Cone - bendhoward, Youtube
Video clip on "Massive Solar Storms" - NationalGeographic
Video clip on solar wind - Sun Montage - SOHO NASA Solar Flare - PHJ
Animation for types of tide - Keith's Moon Page on The Moon & Tides
Animation for center of mass - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Animation for full intergal cycle - By Vincent Wee Foo
Animation for barycenter of a conjunction - By Vincent Wee Foo

 

Web Counters counter was reset on 02/02/2010

 

Disclaimers: The treatise of Universal Vortical Singularity (UVS) in its epistemological paradigm shift, is fundamentally unconventional. Its hypotheses based on a generally unheard-of UVS model, bound to have shortcomings, such as loose ends, errors, and omissions errors. Many details and assumptions in its propositions have yet to be further researched, probed, evaluated, validated, or verified. Its implicit explanations are for casual understanding of the UVS topics presented in the UVS worldview, so if any term or statement is offensive in any manner or from whatsoever perspectives, is most regretted. Links to other sites do not imply endorsement of their contents; apply appropriate discretion whenever necessary. Remarks: Despite the shortcomings, it was intended to offer readers the drift of the UVS research methodology for its insights, and thereby the experts in their relevant fields could refine or improve on the UVS topics.

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