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The UVS inductive resolution on sunspot

Based on the UVS model, a sunspot is a manifested unisonal vortex that has spawned in the photosphere of the Sun.
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In the UVS worldview, the Solar System itself is a vortical system with all the Solar System objects vortically revolves around the dual-core barycenter of the Solar System, and it spirals around the dual-core Galactic Center within a larger vortical system; sunspot is a vortically manifested phenomenon formed by external vortical interactions in its nested spheroidal unisonal vortex.

From the UVS perspective, the phenomenon of sunspot is largely triggered by the precession effects from aligned Solar System objects with a focused torque-induced precession that interacts in the photosphere, this thus resonates to render a torque-free precession on the photosphere, and therefore a cluster of free vortices could be spawned at their focal points to manifest a cluster of dual-core sunspots.


Sunspots

UVS predicates that a sunspot is the core of a unisonal vortex that has spawned in the photosphere of the Sun.

The cognitive paradox that renders sunspot as mysterious phenomenon, was thus resolved with its underlying structure and mechanism explicated.

Based on unisonal vortex mechanism, the main axis of unisonal vortex for those lower latitude sunspots, are primarily caused by a focused torque-induced precession from the Solar System alignment effect. The secondary axis that drives these sunspots, is from the rotation of the Sun on tilted axis, or is from a torque-induced precession of its other major planets.

These vortical motion interactions render the effects of torque-free precession on the photosphere of the Sun with vortical torsion of a two-axis spin that spawns sunspots around the lower latitudes.


The dual-axis
of a spheroid.

See the UVS topics on "The vortices of Jupiter" and "Vortices of Saturn" that elaborate on how atmospheric vortices were spawned with the precession effects of these major gas giants.

Watch video clips on "An experiment of acoustic sound waves" and "Non-Newtonian Fluid on a Speaker Cone" that demonstrate how mechanical force of induced seismic waves could interact in a high viscosity medium. In the experiment with some interventions, mechanically resonated standing waves with excitations in the medium can be observed to manifest a dynamic cluster of wrapped surfaces that resembles pairs of splitting dual-core vortex. Heuristically, when a synergetic of torque-induced precession and torque-free precession occurs at a focal point in the photosphere of the Sun, its could naturally generate such standing waves.

"Active region 9393 as seen by the MDI instrument on NASA’s Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite featured the largest sunspot group observed so far during the current solar cycle. On 30 March 2001, the sunspot area within the group spanned an area more than 13 times the entire surface of the Earth." - Excerpt from Wikipedia.
The significant Solar System objects arrangement for this event was almost aligned Sun-Jupiter-Saturn in its inferior conjunction, and this solar event had occurred near its solar maximum in year 2000.

All direct and indirect evidence illustrated herein pertaining to sunspot with the vortical manifestations of sunspot clusters, solar cycles, and solar jet streams, converged as strong evidence for suggesting that sunspot is a manifested unisonal vortex of photosphere as a result of precessio effects.

The grounding for its epistemic theories of truth: The underlying structure and mechanism of a sunspot as explicated with its hypothetical construct based on the UVS model, elucidated its delusional observations that render their misconception, mysteries, and anomalies. Thus, its cognitive paradox was simply dispersed, and all the related natural phenomena were then qualitatively analysed in the conceptual frameworks of UVS by inductive reasoning for explicating with their empirical evidence to establish their qualitative predictions with abductive reasoning.

See the UVS topics on "The UVS' philosophy of science" and "Overviews of the UVS research" that elaborate on the methodology for the evaluations of natural phenomena, and "The orbits of natural satellites" that elaborates on how all Solar System objects propagate in vortical motions for resolving a critical cognitive paradox.


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The dual-core barycenter of the Solar System - BOTSS

It is believed that the Sun spirals to revolve around the dual-core Galactic Center of the Milky Way galaxy at the velocity of approximately 232 km/s, and it take around 230 million years to make one revolving cycle. In the Milky Way galaxy reference frame, the rotating Sun with minor oscillations carrying all its satellites is in fact moving in helical path around the dual-core Galactic Center. This infers the motion of the Sun encapsulated in the heliosphere is primarily impelled by the vortical motion of the Milky Way galaxy, and the motion of the Solar System is a resonated dual-core vortical motion transferred from the motion of the vortically coalesced stellar materials.

All celestial objects rotate and revolve in vortical motion with resonated precession effects.- UVS inspired -

In the UVS worldview, Sun and its planets were vortically coalesced from molecular clouds of stellar material in a spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy, and this predication of UVS is evidently supported with the empirically observed star HL Tau that was being vortically coalesced.

See the UVS subtopics on "A star is vortically formed in a larger vortical system that impels its galaxy" that illustrates with empirical evidence onthis vortical phenomenon that is currently coalescing a star and its protoplanet in their primordial stage, "The vortical motion of the Sun", "The orbits of natural satellites" for elaboration on how all celestial objects are rotating and revolving in vortical motion, "The cognitive paradox fallacy in Copernican heliocentrism" that illustrates planets move in a helical path through space with a moving Sun.

Based on the UVS model, the dual-core barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS) strongly interacts vortically with the Sun, and weakly interacts with the barycenters of all other Solar System objects with their sub-satellites, and this nothingness is the central of the Solar System. In essence, BOTSS is the vortical gravitational singularity of the Solar System.

The Sun vortically revolves around the BOTSS, which is a virtual center of mass in the heliosphere dominated by the Sun, and the BOTSS in the heliosphere vortically counteracts with the Sun to exchange angular momentum with all the satellites of the Sun.

Based on unisonal vortex mechanism, at vortically resonated locations on the photosphere of the Sun as a result of its manifested torque-free precession, it could resonate to spawn sunspots by vortical torsion of spinor fields with the negative pressure of its vortical void.

From the UVS perspective, all Solar System objects vortically revolve around the dual-core barycenter of the Solar System.

All Solar System objects vortically revolve around the dual-core barycenter of the Solar System. - UVS inspired


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The 22-year integral solar cycle

Sun vortically revolves around the barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS), is as result of the Sun is exchanging angular momentum primarily with the barycenter of Jupiter and all its moons, and subsequently with the barycenters of all other satellites, their sub-satellites, and all stuff in the heliosphere.

"The invariable plane represents the angular momentum of the solar system, and is approximately the orbital plane of Jupiter." - Excerpt from Wikipedia on "Precession of the ecliptic".

From the UVS perspective, the above asserts that the vortical motion of Jupiter significantly dominates with its angular momentum for its spiral path in the invariable plane of Solar System with a wobbling Sun that revolves the Galactic Center; the conventional celestial mechanics of Newtonian's law of universal gravitation that is based on a static Sun is untenable.

As a matter of fact, in the reference frame of the Milky Way galaxy, a planet with its moons moves around a spiraling Sun in a helical path through space; the motion of a planet with its moon is impelled by the vortical motion of the Solar System. The barycenter with angular momentum of a revolving planet carrying its moons to propagate in a composite helical path around the composite helical path of the spiraling Sun, would exchange angular momentum with the BOTSS. On top of the orbital velocity of the planet, the function for the torque-induced precession from the planet needs to factor in the revolving velocity of the Solar System (~232 km/s); a planet is impelled with an angular momentum of the Solar System to vortically revolve around the Galactic Center.

This would account for the additional torque-induced precession effect by the differential motion acting on the spiraling Sun for the exchanging of angular momentum with any of its planet. Any planet with its moons slinged on to vortically revolve around the revolving Sun, is intrinsically subjected to the strong vortical core force of their barycenters. And by factoring in this strong vortical core force that induces on planets, it is obvious that the two most massive planets, which are Jupiter and Saturn, in their helical motion exchanging angular momentum with the moving Sun, are the two most dominating planets for their transferred precession effects that could significantly exert on the photosphere of the Sun with superposition principle.

See the UVS topic on "The hexagonal-like cloud structure of Saturn" that illustrates the transferred precession effects on Saturn's polar vortex from Sun and Jupiter with aligned Sun, Jupiter and Saturn.

Sunspots imaged on 22 June 2004 around the period of a solar minimum.

Conventional wisdom states that the effects of tidal force acting on a static Sun cause by the gravity of Jupiter are minuscule, and it apparently has no significant effect on Sun to be of any concern at all. The scientific theory for celestial mechanics with a static Sun that quantitatively predicts tidal force of a planet has miniscule effect on Sun, needs to be re-evaluated with the model of a spiraling Sun that wobbles around the BOTSS, which vortically revolves around the Galactic Center.

Inferior conjunction of the aligned Sun-Jupiter-Saturn with the barycenter (+) of Solar System outside the Sun.

Superior conjunction of the aligned Jupiter-Sun-Saturn with the barycenter (+) of Solar System inside the Sun. 
This animation illustrates how the barycenter of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn makes one full integral cycle of ~20-year around a fixed Sun.


Note: These illustrations with Solar System objects, are not to scale on size and distance.

The two types of conjunction for Sun, Jupiter and Saturn are illustrated in the above two images.

As illustrated with the simplified animation on right in the reference frame of a fixed Sun, the inferior conjunction for Sun, Jupiter and Saturn are aligned in the order of Sun-Jupiter-Saturn in every 20-year approximately. In the process, the hypothetical barycenter (+) of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would make one integral revolution moving around the Sun in ~20 years, and it moves in and out of the Sun while revolving it.

Amazingly, this barycenter apparently traces out a pattern of Möbius strip topology around the center of the Sun.

See an externally linked topic on "Superior and inferior conjunction" for its elaboration, "Motions of Observable Structures Ruled by Hierarchical Two-body Gravitation in the Universe" for a proposed mathematical models on revolving celestial objects, and also watch a video clip on "SkyMarvels™ SOLAR SYSTEM BARYCENTER" that illustrates a barycenter motion of the Solar System that involves Sun and its four gas giants.

Author's note: The concept for the barycenter of the Solar System was independently conceived with the UVS model of a vortical universe, it was later discovered on the 9th of Aug in 2013 that a video clip titled as "SkyMarvels™ SOLAR SYSTEM BARYCENTER" also depicted this concept. This was an excellent video presentation for the concept of a barycenter motion that involves Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, hence its link was then inserted in the UVS web site. If a video clip showing a wobbling Sun carrying all its spiraling satellites to spirally revolve around the Galactic Center is made available, as it was depicted and illustrated in a book of Dr. Vladimir Ginzburg on the "Helicola" in chapter 13 on page 3, it would be superb.

From the UVS perspective, in the reference frame of a fixed barycenter of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn, the Sun revolves around this barycenter with a full integral cycle of approximately 20 years, also, the BOTSS is manifested by all Solar System objects and it is primarily dominated by the Sun.

With these perceptions as the foundation for the thought experiment by contemplating with the animation on right that illustrates the Sun revolves around the barycenter (+) to make one integral cycle, the BOTSS (not illustrated) being vortically dragged by other significant Solar System objects, such as Uranus, Neptune and high speed charged particles encapsulated in the heliosphere, it could be conceptualized that the Sun would take a little more time for revolving around the BOTSS to complete one integral cycle. And the BOTSS with a slightly longer period should also trace out a Möbius strip path around the center of the Sun, while the barycenter (+) would contribute to the cumulated torque-induced precession effect that interacts with the Sun as a primary harmonic of the BOTSS.

Heuristically, in the reference frame of the Solar System with a fixed BOTSS, barring there is no other major factor, it could take approximately 22 years in a composite orbital resonance that is caused by the Sun for its exchanging of angular momentum primarily with Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, all other known and unknown Solar System objects, and high speed runaway charged particles in the heliosphere to complete one integral cycle around the BOTSS; this renders the 22-year integral solar cycle phenomenon.

Reference frame of this animation is fixed on the barycenter (+) of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn. This animation is merely for illustration only. 

UVS predicates that the 22-year integral solar cycle is caused by all stuff in the heliosphere for the Sun to complete one integral cycle around the BOTSS.

Note: The solar cycle is one of the most important unsolved problems in mainstream solar physics.

From the UVS perspective, the precessing heliosphere encapsulated with high speed runaway charged particles that collectively exchange angular momentum with the Sun, will significantly cause an axial tilt of the Sun with their torque-induced precession effects.

Note: The Newtonian Solar System model does not factor in the mass effect of the ejected charged particles encapsulated in the wobbling heliosphere, which is approximately 18 trillion times the volume of the Sun. This suggests the actual barycenter of the Solar System is not the conventional barycentric coordinate, which was calculated without considering the mass effect of those ejected charged particles that propagate in spiral motion at an average velocity of 400-500 km per second away from the Sun in the Solar System to fill the entire heliosphere. Volume of the Sun is ~1.412×10^18 cubic km, mass of the Sun is ~1.9891×10^30 kg, heliosphere has an approximate radius of 122 astronomical units, density of the Solar Wind is 4.0 atoms per cubic centimeter, the mass of a proton is ~1.6726×10^-27 kg. And therefore a very sketchy calculation with omission errors for the total mass of supersonic protons in the heliosphere is only roughly 1.70x10^20 kg, but this could have a significant precessing effect on the Solar System in an overall angular momentum of ~7.67x10^28 kg m s^-1 with its 450 km average velocity, and this is apparently not a miniscule effect. If consider an upper limit for the density of solar wind at 7.0 atoms per cubic centimeter as suggested by the other solar wind research, the potential mass effect of protons in the heliosphere is approximately 6.75% of the Sun's mass. And considering the dragging effect by all other Solar System rocks and stuff beside Sun, Jupiter and Saturn, this is very potentially the catalyst that can drag to alter the ~20 year solar cycle of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn for manifesting the ~22 year solar cycle for BOTSS and Sun.

Needs professional capabilities with the technology to detect the motion of the BOTSS relative to Sun and Jupiter, and the instruments to make measurements for its full integral cycle for data logging, so as to construct an animated model to illustrate how the Sun exactly revolves around the BOTSS in one integral cycle. And based on such empirical data, it would require a rigorous Solar System model with a wobbling Sun that revolves around the BOTSS to verify the 22-year integral solar cycle.

The animation on right for planetary motion was based on the static Sun model to illustrates the four quarters of Jupiter with reference to the Sun-Saturn alignment.

Click here to see their still images for detailed illustrations.

From the UVS perspective, by contemplating with the animation on right for reference, when Jupiter moves away from an aligned Jupiter-BOTSS-Sun arrangement in superior conjunction, barring there is no other major factor that affects the 22-year integral solar cycle with a Sun that revolves around the BOTSS, from the arrangement of Jupiter-BOTSS-Sun, it could take ~11 years on average for Jupiter to form the of inferior conjunction of aligned BOTSS-Sun-Jupiter in a half integral cycle. And it could then take another ~11 years on average to form the alignment of Jupiter-BOTSS-Sun in the next half integral cycle.

UVS predicates that the half integral solar cycle of 11-year mean period is caused by the revolving motion of Jupiter making the alignments with Sun and the BOTSS.

The orbital elements such as the orbital eccentricity of Jupiter and Saturn with precession effects, as well as perturbation by the gravity of other significant planets, would have caused the primary variations for the half integral solar cycle to vary from ~9.5 years to ~14 years period as conventionally observed by counting the number of sunspots.

Planetary motion based on the static Sun model. It illustrates the phases of Jupiter with Sun-Saturn. 

The conversion to a Solar System model with all Solar System objects revolving around the BOTSS in vortical motion, is imperative for the correct understanding of its celestial mechanics. And as a matter of fact, the mainstream Solar System model with a static Sun postulated as the center of the Solar System is fundamentally flawed; it was fallaciously based on a cognitive paradox and therefore had critically suffered its foundational crisis.

The Sun has had the false reputation that it is the center of the universe,
and it is also not the center of the Solar System.
- UVS inspired -

See the UVS subtopic on "The cognitive paradox fallacy in Kepler's law of planetary motion" for further elaboration on this cognitive paradox.


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The magnetic reversal of the Sun

Based on the UVS model, Sun is governed by its stellar vortex of the Solar System, which is vortically impelled by its torus-shaped spheroidal unisonal vortex. In precession cylces, the Sun in barycenter motion exchanging angular momentum with all stuff encapsulate in the spheroidal unisonal vortex, vortically move in and out of the stellar vortex center while it revolves around it.

In the UVS worldview, the Ring Center of the Fomalhaut star should be tracking the barycenter of its planetary system very closely.

As illustrated in the empirically observed image on right, made visible with scattered light of the star, some spokes around the debris ring generally were pointed to an indicated Ring Center.

These spokes could be pointing to the dual-core barycenter of its planetary system of the star.

See an externally linked report on "Hidden Planet Pushes Star's Ring A Billion Miles Off-Center" for further elaboration.

The debris ring of the Fomalhaut star with spoke lines

From the UVS perspective, when the dual-core barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS) is located outside the Sun, the south magnetic pole of the sun points through its north pole as per normal. When the BOTSS starts to relatively move into the Sun, the magnetic pole of the sun starts to flip, and become fully flipped when the BOTSS has substantially moved into the Sun; this renders the phenomenon of the magnetic reversal of the Sun.

Note: With the cognitive delusion resolved by understanding that the center of Solar System is not the Sun, UVS has thus resolved numerous mysterious phenomena of the Sun.

And after BOTSS has remained inside or near the Sun for its half integral solar cycle (aka solar magnetic activity cycle) of ~11 years on average with it magnetic pole reversed, it would gradually move to outside or further from the center of the Sun, thus the magnetic pole of the Sun would then start to flip again, and would then gradually revert back to its normal polarity when the BOTSS has substantially moved outside of the Sun.

UVS predicates that the magnetic reversal of the Sun is caused by the BOTSS has moved inside of the Sun.

See a series of video on "Primer fields" that presents an ingenious plasma experiment, and in "The Primer Fields Part 2" (at 3:40) that shows a magnet experiment to demonstrate the manifestation of magnetic monopole moment emerged in ball bearings to repel each other in a manifested magnetic confinement dome. From the UVS perspective, the illustrated primer fields is a nested vortical column substructure of a nested unisonal vortex, and the supposedly manifested magnetic monopole is a substructure of the primer fields that has resonated to emerge on the accretion disk in the vortex column. This video @10:20 shows a Flip Ring structure with magnetic characteristic, which could be a similar mechanism for how the Sun can flip its magnetic field when it enters and exits the postulated magnetic Ring Center.

See an externally linked topic on "Ulysses and the Reversal of the Solar Magnetic Field" that illustrates the reversal of coronal magnetic field lines on Sun.

In year 1994 , the BOTSS was supposedly inside the Sun. The alignment is Sun aligned with Saturn and Jupiter was at 90 degree with the Sun, and Jupiter was moving into the inferior conjunction.
In year 2000, the BOTSS was supposedly on its way out of the Sun.
The alignment was Sun-Saturn-Jupiter arrangement of its inferior conjunction.

In year 2005 , the BOTSS was supposedly outside the Sun. The alignment was Sun aligned with Saturn and Jupiter is at 90 degree with the Sun, and Jupiter was moving into the superior conjunction.

Note: The arrangement of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn in those specific years can be verified with the "Planet Finder" applet, to see the illustrations for the arrangements of Solar System objects in those specific years, click here.

Note: For using the Java script driven Planet finder, needs to use their recommended browser, such as the 64 bits Internet Explorer, and has to set it as the default browser for the Java installation. And after installing Java for the browser, has to add the URL of the applet to the "Java Exception Site list" by following the instructions in "How can I configure the Exception Site List?".

See an externally linked topic on "Scientists Stumped By Sun's Asymmetrically Reversing Magnetic Field" that reports on an anomaly of the magnetic reversal of the Sun.

From the UVS perspective, if Sun intercepts the BOTSS at higher latitude farther away from its invariable plane, it would render the phenomenon of asymmetrical magnetic reversal.

UVS predicates that the asymmetrical magnetic reversal of the Sun is as a result of Sun intercepts the BOTSS of the Solar System at higher latitude of the Sun.

Heuristically, once in a rare occasion when Earth enters a barycenter, it would cause the magnetic field of the Earth to be twisted, flipped, twisted again and then gradually revert back to normal when Earth has moved out of the barycenter.

See the UVS topic on "The phenomenon of geomagnetic reversal" for more illustrations on the magnetic reversal of the Earth.

Galactic elements and orbital elements such as eccentricity, semimajor axis, inclination, longitude of the ascending node, argument of periapsis and mean anomaly at epoch from orbiting Saturn and Jupiter could also significantly affect the intensity of sunspot activities. The orbital inclinations of Jupiter and Saturn from the invariable plane of the Sun would also cause varying intensity of precession effect on the photosphere of the Sun. And when Saturn, Jupiter and Sun are aligned on different phases around the Sun, it would cause different levels of solar cycle peak. The alignment of these two largest planets with the Sun when approximately occurs on the invariable plane, would also intensify the precession effect. Another factor that would affect the level of solar cycle peak, is the periapsides of Jupiter and Saturn, and these effects are most intensive when the planets are nearest to the Sun.

Based on the UVS model, the Solar System with all its objects governed by its stellar vortex, is primarily precessing in its two-axis spin. The precession effect intensity of the stellar vortex interacting with the Sun, would cyclically strengthen or weaken depending on the arrangement of the Solar System objects.

From the UVS perspective, the solar maximum phenomenon is caused by the combined precession effects with strengthened tidal forces of aligned Jupiter, Sun and the BOTSS in their inferior conjunction.

This mechanism in a simplified analysis is similar to spring tides with higher sea level on Earth caused mainly by combined precession effects of aligned Earth, Moon and Sun in a lunisolar precession.

UVS predicates that solar maximum of solar cycle is caused by the maximum combined precession effect of aligned Jupiter, Sun and the BOTSS.

From the UVS perspective, the solar minimum phenomenon occurs when the position of Saturn is perpendicular to the alignment of the Jupiter, Sun and the BOTSS with weakened tidal forces.

This mechanism in a simplified analysis is similar to neap tides with lower sea level on Earth when the position of Moon at quarter phases is approximately perpendicular to the alignment of Earth and Sun.

UVS predicates that solar minimum of solar cycle occurs when the position of Saturn is approximately perpendicular to the alignment of Jupiter, Sun and the BOTSS.

See the UVS subtopics on "The causality of tidal force" that illustrates the tidal force in pushed-in gravity, and "A typical arrangement of Solar System objects that could trigger a terrestrial free vortex".



Animation for types of tide from Keith's Moon Page

From the UVS perspective, this mechanism can rationally explain the double peak or double bottom of a ~11 year solar cycle. The main peak of the solar cycle can be rendered by Saturn was aligned to the alignment of Jupiter and the BOTSS with an almost aligned Sun, and the second peak of the solar cycle is then rendered by Saturn was aligned to the alignment of Jupiter and Sun with an almost aligned BOTSS. The main bottom of the solar cycle can be rendered by Saturn was perpendicular to the alignment of Jupiter and the Sun with almost an aligned BOTSS, and then the second bottom of the solar cycle is rendered by Saturn was perpendicular to the alignment of Jupiter and the BOTSS with an almost aligned Sun.

Further research in the Solar System alignment effect based on the UVS model with its qualitative predictions, could provide the foundation for its quantitative predictions of solar activities that are associated with a vortically moving Sun, which revolves around the dual-core barycenter of the Solar System.


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Solar wind

Based on the UVS model, Sun is impelled by its spheroidal unisonal vortex that precesses in its two-axis spin. Its consoldiating vortical motion on the Sun will cause the Sun to almost isotropically radiate charged particles by the reactive centrifugal forces of its manifested vortrices on photosphere.

See the UVS topic on "Dust devil" that elaborates on how its vortrex mechanism vortically spin out charged particles with its manifested reactive centrifugal force.

Based on unisonal vortex mechanism, the reactive centrifugal force from vortical motion of photosphere as a result of precession effects could vortically spin and charge solar particles. And with push angular momentum, the charged particles of proton and electron are ejected with reactive centrifugal force as solar wind; this renders the phenomenon of solar wind.

See an externally linked topic on "Observations of Alfvén Vortices in the fast solar wind" that elaborates on the magnetic vortices in solar wind.

The empirically observed solar wind with charged particles of proton and electron, is a strong evidence for subatomic particles are vortically radiated as solar wind.

From the UVS perspective, the photosphere of the Sun undergoes a resonated vortical process that splits the hydrogen atoms as charged particles of electrons and protons, and then spew out the charged particles as solar wind. This particle radiation process is caused by the manifested vortical motion of torque-free precession in the photosphere for the charged particles that have overcome the Sun's escape velocity.

UVS predicates that solar winds with charged particles of protons and electrons are vortically spun out from the photosphere with reactive centrifugal force.

Isotropic vortical spin fusion of aetheric vortex that weaves as matter,
is the causality for vortical spin radiation in harmonics of various wavelengths.
- UVS inspired -


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Other vortical phenomena of the Sun

Based on the UVS model, the phenomenon of solar jet stream along the equator is rendered by a vortrex of its polar vortex manifested in a vortical system; an equatorial solar jet stream is a substructure of its solar polar vortex.

"We still don't understand exactly how jet streams trigger sunspot production," says Pesnell. "Nor do we fully understand how the jet streams themselves are generated." - Excerpt from "Mystery of the Missing Sunspots, Solved?"

UVS predicates that the solar jet stream pair are vortex substructures impelled by the pair of polar vortices of photosphere.

See the UVS topic on "Jet streams" that elaborates on the underlying structure and mechanism of jet streams.

The cognitive paradox that renders solar jet stream as mysterious phenomenon, was thus meticulously resolved with its underlying structure and mechanism explicated.

The fact that a solar jet stream is manifested by its polar vortex as can be empirically observed with its cognitive paradox resolved, is a qualitative proof that the solar jet stream is a sub-structure of its polar vortex.

From the UVS perspective, the closing in approach of Jupiter to align with the dual-core barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS), and the Sun in every 11-year approximately, would intensify the polar vortex of the Sun with tidal force to manifest a pair of solar jet streams.

UVS predicates that the solar jet stream pair are manifested by the vortical interactions of the BOTSS and the Sun.

The high speed spin of plasma jet streams in vortical motion within the corona, could explain the corona is much hotter than the surface of the Sun with tightly packed photosphere that has much limited degree of freedom for motion; kinetic energy of plasma jet streams with vortical motion in high speed spin within the corona are converted to excessive heat.

Vortical motion of aether is the first principle for thermodynamics of the universe. - UVS inspired -

From the UVS perspective, a sunspot cluster is driven and perturbed by the solar jet stream in vortical motion by exchanging angular momentum in their interactions; the pair of solar jet streams are the causality that impels sunspot clusters on both hemispheres of the Sun. This explains the phenomenon of sunspot cluster, and this is also similar to how an atmospheric polar vortex on Earth impels a jet stream that in turn impels its tornado cluster.

UVS predicates that sunspot cluster is impelled by its solar jet stream and this is impelled by its polar vortex in a unisonal vortical motion.

From the UVS perspective, the Sun precessing with varying revolving velocity around the dual-core barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS), is the causality for the solar variation with changes in the intensity of radiation emitted by the Sun. Based on unisonal vortex mechanism, the faster the Sun revolves in its spiral motion, the higher is its solar radiation, and the slower the Sun revolves in its spiral motion, the lower is its solar radiation; the precession of the Sun fundamentally renders the solar variation phenomenon.

UVS predicates that solar variation of the Sun's radiation is proportionally caused by the varying velocity of the Sun precessing around the BOTSS.

In the UVS worldview, vortex activities on Earth would also be peaked when Earth are aligned with Sun, Jupiter, Saturn and the BOTSS in all sort of aligned arrangements. This is the causality for the synchronized peaks for sunspot activities on Sun with vortex activities on Earth, such as the events of aurora, storm, and cyclone.

This explains how the eco-systems on Earth are extended far out into its galaxy, and are dominantly ruled by the precessing vortical gravitational singularity of the Solar System.

From the UVS perspective, a larger corona loop caused by a higher intensity unisonal vortex, could spin a steady stream of charged particles at the mid-section of vortex column to reach escape velocity, and thus jetting the charged particles into space at higher speed.

Vortical motion could explain the anomaly on how a stream of intensified charged particles attaining escape velocity by culmination of vortical momentum, could eject out from the sunspot. It is a paradox for thermodynamics of the universe that in the absence of extra heat source, that sunspot could eject out ionized gas stronger than the surrounding hotter region of photosphere; this is inexplicable with the thermodynamics concept that posits heat as the first principle for the motion of matter in the observable universe.

In the UVS worldview, kinetic energy in the torque-free precession of photosphere is converted to thermal energy in the vortical process for its plasma glow and radiation.

Vortical motion is the first principle for the mechanism of the Solar System, and heat is merely its effect.

Aether vortical motion is the omnipotent physical law in the observable universe.” - UVS inspired -


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The ~60-year precession cycle of the Solar System

See an externally linked topic on "Solar to river flow and lake level correlations" that illustrates with a scientific finding on how a solar cycle correlates with river flow and lake level, it demonstrated that a precession cycle of ~60 years has dominating effects to the ecosystems on Earth; it apparently correlates approximately with three thirty-year half integral cycles of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn.

In the above externally linked topic, it shows an approximately sixty-year period prominent solar cycle, as illustrated with its chart for “Long term solar activity influences on South American rivers”, was found to have correlations with the river flow and lake level on Earth. This is a strong scientific evidence that the ecosystems on Earth, is also affected by the precession effects of the Solar System.

In the UVS worldview, the eco-systems on Earth are extended far out into its galaxy and are significantly influenced by its precession effect with the precessing BOTSS.

UVS predicates that the eco-systems on Earth are extended far out into its galaxy are significantly influenced by the precessing BOTSS.

From the UVS perspective, a significant precession cycle that significantly affect the barycenter motion of the Solar System, is apparently caused by the near ratio orbital resonance of Jupiter and Saturn. It takes around 59.3 years for these two gas giant planets and the Sun to complete one longer period cycle.


The orbital resonance of Jupiter and Saturn takes ~59.3 years to complete one full cycle.

In the orbital resonance of Jupiter and Saturn with a 5:2 near ratio, for every five revolving cycle of Jupiter having completed around the Sun in a sidereal period of approximately 59.3 years (11.86 yr x5), Saturn will complete a little bit more than two revolving cycle (29.4571 yrs x 2 cycle = ~58.9 yrs) around the Sun with a slight angular phase shift.

Heuristically, assuming Sun revolves around the Galactic Center at a constant velocity, in the 59.3 years orbital resonance cycle, when Sun, Jupiter and Saturn formed their superior conjunction with Jupiter moved nearest to its perihelion, with their barycenter positioned at a nearest point from the mass center of the Sun, it would render their minimum precession effect as a significant factor for decreasing solar activities. And when Sun, Jupiter and Saturn formed their inferior conjunction with Jupiter moved nearest to its aphelion, with their barycenter positioned at a farthermost point from the mass center of the Sun, it would render their maximum precession effect as a significant factor for increasing solar activities.

UVS predicates that the prominent solar cycle of approximately sixty-year sidereal period is primarily caused by the orbital resonance of Jupiter and Saturn.

Other significant precession cycles with longer orbital periods would involve the two other large planets, which are Uranus and Neptune.

Local physical laws are determined by the large-scale structure of the universe. - Mach's principle

See also UVS topics on "Pre-heaven Bagua" that elaborates on how the ~60-year sexagenary cycle, could be used of in the Chinese calendar to predict climatic events on Earth.


.
Little Ice Age

Evidently, the various periods of low solar activities, such as the Sporer Minimum, Maunder Minimum and Dalton Minimum, were found to have coincided with extreme cold climates on Earth. And it is believed that the levels of the isotope carbon-14 on Earth was lagging the Earth's temperature, which was correlated with solar activities.

And the synchronized phenomenon of Little Ice Age on Earth with low solar activities, where there were climate minima, had all occurred in superior conjunctions of a balanced Jupiter-Sun-Saturn arrangement with the Sun at positions nearest to their significant barycenters.


Solar activity events recorded in radiocarbon. Values since 1950 not shown.

From the UVS perspective, these various periods of low solar activities were caused by a long cycle precession effect of the Solar System. In those moments, the Sun vortically revolved at lower tangential speeds with their least angular momentum around those barycenters; lower kinetic energy of the Sun revolving a significant barycenter would render lower solar activities.

The main barycenter rendered by all these aligned Solar System objects, would be inside the Sun and was at a nearest point from the mass center of the Sun. The Sun at a nearest point from the BOTSS, was therefore spiraling at its lowest speeds through space with lower angular momentum. Hence, with reduced total solar irradiance, it therefore render the periodical phenomenon of Little Ice Age on Earth that synchronized with low solar activities.

UVS predicates that Little Ice Age occurrance on Earth is as a result of planetary arrangements had pushed Sun to a nearest distance from the BOTSS.

See external links on "U.S. Midwest, Northeast hit by bitter cold temperatures" that reported on how a widened polar vortex of North Pole were causing cold climate further South, "Evidence for Planetary Forcing of the Cosmic Ray Intensity and Solar Activity Throughout the Past 9400 Years" that elaborates on an empirically observed precession cycle of Uranus and Neptune, "Solar inertia motion" that illustrates the trefoil-like trajectory of Sun governed by the four gas giants with a ~50 year precession cycle within a ~178.7 year precession cycle, and "Piers Corbyn: Long Range Weather Forecast" that illustrates on a 220 year cycle matching climate pattern of the past that could be used for long range climate forecasting of the Earth (Inserted in May 2014).

Dr. Timo Niroma discovered a 220 year long range solar cycle, which suggests the next grand solar minima would be in 2031, and thus the coldest moment of an anticipated Little Ice Age can be expected at then.

Dr. Ivanka Charvátová illustrated a ~179 year solar inertial motion cycle, which also suggests Sun is now entering another period of low solar activities like it did in the past four grand solar minima events, but stated that the physical mechanism is not yet known.

(Inserted in May 2014)

The orbital inclination of the Earth's orbit has a ~100,000 year cycle relative to the invariable plane, the axial precession of Earth has a cycle of ~25,800 year, the axial tilt of Earth that causes seasons on Earth has a cycle of ~1 year, the orbital resonance of Jupiter and Saturn has an integral cycle of ~59.3 year, the Sun has a full solar cycle of ~22 year, and et al. Heuristically, climate variations on Earth are primarily governed by the mechanism that renders the compositions of long and short precession cycles in the Solar System.

See the UVS topic on "The axial precession of the Earth" that elaborates on an orbital forcing of the Earth, and an externally linked topic on "Orbital forcing" that elaborates on the effect on climate of slow changes in the tilt of the Earth's axis and shape of the orbit.

From the UVS perspective, the ~20 year solar cycle of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn, combined with the ~11 year half integral cycle of Jupiter, Sun and BOTSS, would generate a 220 year prominent precession cycle for the Sun (20x11); this is a composite precession cycle with its underlying mechanism that renders the long range solar cycle of 220 year as proposed by Dr. Timo Niroma.

Based on the Solar System alignment effect, a grand solar minima is caused by an extreme arrangement of Jupiter-BOTSS-Sun-Saturn that was overall synchronized and balanced with all other planets in a longer period precession cycle. This resulted in the combined precession effect of a group of planets is cancelled by the combined precession effect of another group of planets for their interactions with the Sun and the BOTSS. In December 1650, when the Maunder Minimum event occurred, the Solar System arrangement was a superior conjunction with almost aligned Saturn-Sun-Jupiter-Uranus-Neptune. Another prominent solar minumum occurred in ~1811, and there was a superior conjunction with almost aligned Jupiter-Earth-Sun-Saturn. In December 2031, the arrangement of Solar System objects would be a superior conjunction of almost aligned Uranus-Saturn-Earth-Sun-Jupiter with BOTSS also expected to be aligned at then; this is a catalyst for manifesting an expected period of lowest solar activities that could render a Little Ice Age event on Earth.

From the UVS perspective with gravity is a spheroidal pushed-in effect, an aligned Jupiter-Sun-Saturn superior conjunction with Sun being pushed-in nearest to the dual-core barycenter of the Solar System (BOTSS), would reduce the precession effects of a rotating Sun when it wobbles very near to the BOTSS at a lowest revolving speed with a least angular momentum, hence minimizing the intensity of the sunspot activity in all sorts of Solar System objects arrangement with the BOTSS.

Center of a star revolving at a lower velocity when it is nearer to a barycenter (+) with a small revolving planet.

UVS predicates that the Maunder Minimum is caused by the Jupiter-BOTSS-Saturn superior conjunction with all other planets to push-in the Sun nearest to the BOTSS.

Based on the Solar System alignment effect, a grand solar maxima is caused by an extreme arrangement of Sun-BOTSS-Jupiter-Saturn that was also aligned with most of the planets at the same side. For a solar peak event occurred in June 1782, there was an inferior conjuction with almost aligned Uranus-Sun-Earth-Jupiter-Saturn. This resulted in a maximum combined precession effect with a group of planets for their interactions with the Sun and the BOTSS. Another solar peak occurred in ~1940, and there was an inferior conjunction with almost aligned Sun-Jupiter-Saturn-Uranus. In July 2080, an arrangement of Sun-Earth-Moon-Jupiter-Saturn-Uranus would occur, thus, very high intensity sunspot activities can be expected to occur with BOTSS also expected to be aligned at then; this is a catalyst for manifesting intensified solar activities that could be render a global warming peak on Earth.

From the UVS perspective with gravity is a spheroidal pushed-in effect, an aligned BOTSS-Jupiter-Saturn inferior conjunction with the Sun being pushed-out farthest away from the BOTSS, it would intensify the precession effect of a rotating Sun when it wobbles farther away from the BOTSS at a highest revolving speed with a strongest angular momentum, hence maximizing the intensity of sunspot activity in all sorts of Solar System objects arrangement with the BOTSS.

Center of a star revolving at a higher velocity when it is farther from a barycenter (+) with a larger revolving planet.

UVS predicates that the Modern Maximum is caused by the BOTSS-Jupiter-Saturn inferior conjunction with all other planets to push-out the Sun farthermost from the BOTSS.

Note: The arrangement of Solar System objects in these specific years can be verified with the "Planet Finder" applet.

See the UVS topics on "Ice age" that elaborates on how the freezing up of the Earth could be caused by a vortical mechanism in a precession cycle, "The atmospheric effects of polar vortex" that elaborates on how polar climate could be vortically extended toward the equator, and "Cometary outburst" that illustrates how the spinor fields of barycenter effect could have had caused cometary outbursts.

The Sun has had the false reputation that it is the center of the universe,
and it is also not the center of the Solar System.
- UVS inspired -

From the UVS perspective, planetary alignments of inner Solar System planets with Sun and either Jupiter, or Saturn can render the phenomenon of less prominent solar cycles. These inner Solar System planets could independently or jointly align with the BOTSS, Sun and either Jupiter or Saturn, thus resulting in those less prominent solar cycles that were caused by a composition of precession effects.

UVS predicates that the less prominent solar cycles are caused by cyclical precession effect of other Solar System planets with Sun and either Jupiter, or Saturn.

Based on unisonal vortex mechanism, the dynamo effect of a sunspot is caused by a spinning photosphere vortex that generates huge electrical currents and strong magnetic storm around the sunspot through magnetohydrodynamics on photosphere that beams magnetic field outward into space; magnetic fields around the sunspot and corona loops are caused by the dynamo effect of vortex activities.


.
Other vortical stuctures of the Sun

From the UVS perspective, a vortex eye on a surface of the Sun is a depressed void area, whereby the usual atmospheric presence of plasmatic viscous matter required for the thermal convection is vortically displaced.

This effect could render the phenomenon of an inert dark center of a sunspot with a vortical void that limits convection, and therefore the region is much cooler than the surrounding.

UVS predicates that the inert dark center of a sunspot is caused by the void of vortex column that limits convection.

From the UVS perspective, the extremely large and stable polar vortex pair of the Sun, is the causality for the phenomenon of polar caps as long-lived corona holes, where coronal temperature and atmospheric density are suddenly dropped in the low pressure systems of their vortical voids.

The photosphere on a Sun's hemisphere was subjected to its rotation to become a forced vortex; at equator the surface of photosphere is on a highest potential plane and at polar center the surface of photosphere is at a lowest potential point. The driving force for the Sun's polar vortex comes from the self-perpetuating force of the Sun revolving around the Galactic Center in a spiral arm of the galactic vortex, and this effect transforms the forced vortex into a very large, stable and long-lived free vortex in the photosphere at polar region that cyclonically spins around its polar axis.

UVS predicates that the long-lived corona holes in the form of polar caps of the Sun, are voids of the polar vortex pair of photosphere.


Long-lived polar sunspots among other sunspots

Sunspots - Solar vortices

Corona loops of a sunspot

Based on the UVS model, the dominant dual-core vortex that impels the sunspot, vortically coalesces charged particles into plasma jets in closed streamlines as satellite vortices that formed around its spinning dual-core vortex eye.

The phenomenon of a sunspot's penumbra is a manifested chain of satellite vortices that form as jets in a ring torus structure, and they spiral around its vortically manifested sunspot.

From the UVS perspective, these solar jets of charged particles formed as vertical rings at different angular phases on a horizontal dual-core ring torus structure around its sunspot; a solar jet is a free vortex formed with vortically coalesced charged particles that bends around a vortically formed ring torus structure.


A ring torus structure
Schematic of a dominant unisonal vortex in a progressive vortical paradigm arrangement

UVS predicates that the penumbra of a sunspot is a chain of satellite vortices in the form of jets manifested on a ring torus structure around its sunspot.

From the UVS perspective, the phenomenon of corona loops is also the manifestation of a chain of satellite plasma vortices that are spiraling around a vortically manifested sunspot.

UVS predicates that corona loops are charged particle jet streams formed in the satellite plasma vortices of a solar vortex.

From the UVS perspective, the phenomenon of a sunspot pair is rendered by a dual-core unisonal vortex with its dual-core being separated on the surface of photosphere. Evidently, some observed dual-core sunspots were not separated on the photosphere.

A dual-core unisonal vortex of photosphere is caused by a wobbling Sun with its manifested torque-free precession. A wobbling Sun with regressing viscous matter generates a main center of equilibrium and a secondary center of equilibrium that can be separated on the surface of photosphere, but dynamically merged as a dual-core at the bottom. A center of equilibrium is where the vortex eye would resonate in its torque-free precession to open on the photosphere to vortically form a sunspot.

Graphic illustrations for a sunspot pair and some sunspot pairs.

UVS predicates that a sunspot pair is a dual-core unisonal vortex of the Sun's photosphere and its dual-core is separated on the surface of photosphere.

Based on unisonal vortex mechanism, the breaking at vortex column of a colossal loop of solar prominence would cause what was observed as the phenomenon of corona mass ejection.

The angular momentum from spinning force of the broken vortex column, would blast charged particles with reactive centrifugal force that have overcome the escape velocity of the Sun (617.7km/s), thus propagates the ejecta into space.

When an instability occurs, such as by the built up of excessive vortical energy, a dissipating vortex or the sudden drops in vortex intensity when the Sun is perturbed, the solar prominence could break most easily at the mid-section of the vortex column. This is apparently the most vulnerable section with the smallest diameter vortex column that spins at the highest speed in its vortical culmination.


A ruptured solar prominence.

UVS predicates that corona mass ejection is caused by the conserved angular momentum in the vortex column of a ruptured corona loop.

Watch video clips on "Massive Solar Storms" and "SOHO NASA Solar Flare", see also an externally linked topic on "Coronal mass ejection".

Based on the UVS model, the heliosphere that encapsulates the Sun is formed by its spheroidal unisonal vortex; its vortical motion coalesced molecular clouds of stellar material to vortically form the Solar System.

From the UVS perspective, heliosphere is vortically formed by the vortical motion of solar wind pushing out vortically against the pushing in interstellar medium that is vortically consolidated by its galactic vortex.

The solar wind vortically generates the phenomenon of heliosphere, empirically observed to be an enormous nested electrostatic bubble with interstellar medium that encapsulates the Solar System.

See the UVS subtopics on "The vortical motion of the Sun" that elaborates on heliosphere based on the UVS model, "Nucleosynthesis in the universe" that on how elaborates on how galactic wind could be vortically generated, and "Aether vortical motion" for further elucidation.


With the visualizations on the underlying structures and mechanisms of natural phenomena,
these intuitively induce the resolutions for the revelations on their actualities.
- UVS inspired -

 

 

Glossary:
empirical
-
Derived from or guided by experience or experiment; provable or verifiable by experience or experiment.
epistemic
-
The conditions for acquiring knowledge. 
first principle
-
The first basis from which a thing is known.
hypothesis 
-
A proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis) or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. 
natural phenomenon
-
A natural phenomenon is a non-artificial event in the physical sense, and therefore not produced by humans, although it may affect humans.
paradigm
-
A set of forms all of which contain a particular element, esp. the set of all inflected forms based on a single stem or theme.
paradox
-
Any thing, or situation exhibiting an apparently contradictory nature with false proposition.
singularity
-
A peculiarity, a unique quality, a state of being singular. Note: The term singularity here does not refer to mathematical singularity nor the gravitational singularity.  It has very general reference to a class of existence with a similarity.
solar unisonal vortex
-
A unisonal vortex formed in the photosphere of the Sun.
unison 
-
A process in which all elements behave in the same way at the same time; simultaneous or synchronous parallel action. 
universe
-
The totality of known or supposed objects and phenomena throughout space; the cosmos; macrocosm. It is beyond the defined observable universe.
viscous
-
Having the property of viscosity; sticky.
vortical singularity
-
A spheroidal culmination of aether with vortical motion that unisonally spawns its resonated and nested satellite vortical fractals in its vortical paradigm. 

 

 

~ With credit to Wilf James for highlighting that the anomaly of intensified ionized particle ejection that corresponds with solar cycle of sunspot is inexplicable with heat as the first principle for thermodynamics of the universe.

~ With thanks to oldbrew from TALLBLOKE'S TALKSHOP for his post that highlighted the link to "Interview: Is climate change caused by solar inertial motion?" that illustrates the trefoil-like trajectory of Sun governed by the Jupiter-Saturn with a 10 year sunspot cycle.

~ With thanks to Roger Tallbloke from TALLBLOKE'S TALKSHOP for his post that highlighted the link to "Evidence for Planetary Forcing of the Cosmic Ray Intensity and Solar Activity Throughout the Past 9400 Years".

 

Note: The mechanism for cyclical arrangements with precession effects in the Solar System were independently perceived with the UVS model, and these were conceived without any prior reference; the articles for the sixty-year sexaganary cycle, the ~179 year solar cycle discovered by Dr. Ivanka Charvatova, and the ~220 year longer period solar cycle discovered by Dr. Timo Niroma was later found to be available on the Internet.

 


June 6th 2007

References and links:
Sunspot - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sun - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar System - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Precession - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Galactic Center - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mystery of the Missing Sunspots, Solved? - From NASA Science; Science news
Angular momentum - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Torsion - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Negative pressure
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Asteroid belt - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Superposition principle - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Celestial mechanics - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Precession of the ecliptic - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jupiter - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Saturn - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Invariable plane - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Axial tilt - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orbital eccentricity - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Foundational crisis - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fomalhaut - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Planetary system - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hidden Planet Pushes Star's Ring A Billion Miles Off-Center - By ScienceDaily
Conjunction - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Superior and inferior conjunction - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Motions of Observable Structures Ruled by Hierarchical Two-body Gravitation in the Universe - By Dr Yongfeng Yang of Bureau of Water Resources of Shandong Province.
Solar inertia motion - Ivanka Charvátová and Pavel Hejda
Interview: Is climate change caused by solar inertial motion - KLIMASKEPTIK.CZ
Invariable plane - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orbital inclination - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Axial precession - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Axial tilt - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orbital forcing - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heart (symbol) - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Möbius strip - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heuristic - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Planet Finder - By Dr. Benjamin Crowell, author of Light and Matter
Scientists Stumped By Sun's Asymmetrically Reversing Magnetic Field - TPM
Orbital resonance - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Perihelion - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar cycle - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ulysses and the Reversal of the Solar Magnetic Field - From the Physics Department of Imperial College
Milky Way - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Inclinations - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Periapsides - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lunisolar precession - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sporer Minimum - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Maunder Minimum
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dalton Minimum
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ice age - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar irradiance - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Evidence for Planetary Forcing of the Cosmic Ray Intensity and Solar Activity Throughout the Past 9400 Years - By Ken McCracken, Jurg Beer and Friedhelm Steinhilber
Sexagenary cycle - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mass center - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Little Ice Age - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Corona Mass Ejection - University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)
Solar prominence - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Reactive centrifugal force - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Escape velocity of the Sun - From Yahoo! Anssers
Coronal mass ejection - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar flares - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Corona - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar wind - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Observations of Alfvén Vortices in the fast solar wind - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Particle radiation - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heliosphere - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Interstellar medium - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar variation - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar to river flow and lake level correlations - Posted by Anthony Watts
Eco-systems - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thermodynamics of the universe - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Magnetohydrodynamics - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Image of sunspot and charts - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Image of sunspots - Swedish Institute for Solar Physics,
ISP, Göran Scharmer and Mats Löfdahl
Image of a two-axis spheroid - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Images for coronal magnetic field lines - From the Physics Department of Imperial College
Image of X-ray polar sunspot - Nasa; + plus Magazine
Image of corona loops - The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and Spaceflight
Image of a ring torus structure
- LucasVB; public domain
Image of Sunspot pair -
From Chaisson & McMillan, Astronomy Today
Image of corona mass ejection - Space Environment Center, NOAA
Video on Primer fields - By David LaPoint
Video on "SkyMarvels™ SOLAR SYSTEM BARYCENTER" - By celestia4allCreator
Video on an experiment of acoustic sound waves - etherpimp, YouTube
Video on non-Newtonian Fluid on a Speaker Cone - bendhoward, Youtube
Video clip on "Massive Solar Storms" - NationalGeographic
Video clip on solar wind - Sun Montage - SOHO NASA Solar Flare - PHJ
Animation for types of tide - Keith's Moon Page on The Moon & Tides
Animation for center of mass - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Animation for full intergal cycle - By Vincent Wee Foo
Animation for barycenter of a conjunction - By Vincent Wee Foo

 

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